CHANGING GENDER ROLES AS A SOLUTION? A Reading of Mahesh Dattani’s Final Solutions Dr. Sumita Roy Osmania University Hyderabad. The very fact. Contents. Preface. 7. Introduction to English Drama in English. 9. Mahesh Dattani : Life and Works. A Critical Analysis of Final Solutions. Act I. Act I. Final Solutions has 69 ratings and 0 reviews: Paperback.

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Final Solutions: A Stage Play

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Eliot Eliot 84 These lines may well be uttered by the agonised family members of Ishrat Jahan and three other Muslims who were killed on 15th Junein a fake encounter C conducted by the currently jailed IPS officer D G Vanzara who had staged this murderous drama, according to Magistrate S P Tamang, to get promotions and win the favour of his e superiors Times News Network.

It is these examples of administrative collusion which exacerbate those forces of marginalisation which push certain sections of the society to the peripheries by subjecting them to various kinds of deprivation and injustice.

These incidents are actually indicative of the conflict between the constitutionally determined secular national structure of India silutions the discourse of communalism, which obviously threatens to destroy that secular fabric altogether.

An International Journal in English ISSN Such an attempt, however, must always take into account the entrenched discourse of Hindu nationalism which has been cumulatively created by nationalist historiography on the one hand and the rise of Vattani nationalism on the other. As Partha Chatterjee illustrates with numerous examples, a number of major Bengali thinkers and authors began by imagining the nation as a primarily Hindu entity, within which however, even originally anti-Hindu and anti-Brahmin religions like Buddhism, Jainism or Sikhism could be subsumed, and placed both Islam and Christianity as alien forces which could not be included within the imagined community of India.

And it was their division of India into a classical Hindu ancient past, a dark Muslim Medieval age and a British induced Renaissance, which was accepted soolutions applied by Indian historians who did not bother to interrogate the categorisations and C their bases. Partha Chatterje therefore notes: For Indian nationalists in the late nineteenth century, the pattern of classical glory, medieval decline, and modern Renaissance appeared as one that was not only proclaimed e by modern historiography for Europe but also approved for India by at least some sections of European scholarship.

What was needed was to claim the agency for Th completing the project of modernity.

We have lost our religion, our caste, our honour, and family name, and now we are about to lose our very lives…how can Hinduism survive unless we drive out these dissolute swine? As Partha Chatterjee explains: Buddhism or Jainism are Hindu solitions they originate in India, mahessh of debates and critiques that are internal to Hinduism. Islam and Christianity came from outside and are therefore foreign. This stance becomes all the more evident when Savarkar, further elaborates his position and states: He makes this all the more clear as he states: That is why in the case of some of our Mohameddan or Christian countrymen who had originally been forcibly converted to a non-Hindu religion, and who consequently have inherited, along with Hindus, a common fatherland and a greater part of the wealth of the common culture — language, law, customs, folklore and history — are not and cannot be recognised as Hindus.

For though Hindusthan to them is Fatherland, as to any other Hindu, yet it is not to them a Holyland too. Golwalkar would go on to assert: All those not belonging to the national, i. Those only are nationalist patriots who, with the aspiration to glorify the Hindu race and Nation next to their heart, are prompted into activity and strive to achieve that goal. All others are either traitors or enemies to the mshesh cause, to take a charitable view, idiots.

The foreign races in Hindusthan must either adopt the Hindu culture and n language, must learn to respect and hold in reverence Hindu religion, must entertain no idea but those of the glorification of the Hindu race and culture, i.

Race pride at its highest has been manifested here…a good lesson for us in Hindusthan to learn and profit by. C Noorani maheh Such statements form the discursive framework for the rise of Hindu fundamentalism in India which has a produced a retrograde, revivalist, fascist nationalism e which has grown in strength across India and has produced in the minds of religious minorities a haunting sense of insecurity which has only been intensified by such Th occurrences as the demolition of the Babri Masjid or the burning of missionary Graham Staines.


Mahesh Dattani

These discursive frameworks and the kind of actions they instigate are integral to the processes of postcolonial subalternization as a result of which the new subaltern begins to feel a sense of unbelongingness owing to the multiple deprivations and injustices that he is subjected to and they may well generate a sense of hostility towards the nation-state in question.

This is precisely the context that Dattani seeks to explore in the play where two Muslim boys, chased by a fanatic mob that keeps baying for their blood, seek shelter in the house of Ramnik Gandhi. Such an ideal, however, is rudely shattered at the very beginning as the symbolic representation of the nation-space is fearfully disrupted by divisive religious forces. It is these forces which vehemently assert themselves through the chorus as they collectively Vol.

Chorus 1, 2, 3: This is our land! It is in their blood!

Mahesh Dattani – Wikipedia

It is in their blood to destroy! Kill the sons of swine! FS Through these comments Dattani foregrounds that communal discourse which identifies Muslims as an inimical, hostile group of people who should have all gone to Pakistan after Partition. Has their old hostility and murderous mood, which resulted in widespread riots, looting, arson, raping and all sorts of orgies on an unprecedented scale in —47, come n to a halt at least now? It would be suicidal to delude ourselves into believing that they have turned patriots overnight after the creation of Pakistan.

On the contrary, the Muslim io menace has increased a hundredfold by the creation of Pakistan which has become a springboard for all their future aggressive designs on our country. Pandey One of the strategies through which is this is done is the repeated reference to the trauma of partition which becomes one of the many available tools of communal polarisation.

As Vasanthi Raman notes: A macabre way, in which partition has resurfaced in the lives of Indian Muslims, particularly since the s, is in the metaphor of a mini-Pakistan. Partition is almost reenacted every time there is a riot and Muslim areas have been affected…The language and the slogans of the Hindu right wing during the series of riots sincewhen the Babri masjid was vandalized, unabashedly recall partition Raman Vol. An International Journal in English ISSN The same process is also highlighted in the play through Hardika, who had herself been victimized by the communal frenzy during Partition and her diary becomes a window through which those troubled times are poured on to the stage: He said he was happy that we were rid of the Britishers.

He also said something which I did not understand then. He said that before leaving they had let loose the dogs. And I knew I was thinking the same, like my father. FS Her fears are concretized by the destruction of the Krishna idol which not only represents the antagonism between warring religious communities but also symbolizes the absence of love which is reinforced by the rupturing of the records of love songs. The songs of love that I had learnt to sing with.

Cracked… FS Hardika not only adored these Muslim singers but even aspired to be like them in the future.

This substantiates that sense of a syncretic culture where so many diverse strands could merge together on the basis of that shared universal human solutins of love n which was also the subject of their songs. However, as the records are cracked by the thrown stones we sloutions witness that rupture of our syncretic culture which is also io responsible for the ongoing politics of estrangement, hatred and conflict that feeds itself through the resurrection of traumatic memories of the past to harden communal hatred er within individuals.

Hardika herself has become so prejudiced by these traumatic events that she not only despises solutiions two young boys but even asks Ramnik to shut the door against them so that they may be slaughtered: They killed his grandfather. In fact, ever since independence India witnessed a dattaji rise of the discourse of majoritarian communalism which inevitably developed a sense of fear, humiliation and consequent resentment in the Muslim communities that became all the more acute in the wake of the violent communal politics that gripped India since the s, culminating in such barbaric deeds as the demolition of the Babri Masjid and the consequent riots, as well as the genocide of It is this mentality which is voiced by the Muslim Chorus: They hunt us down!

They beat us up! But we are strong! They want to throw us out! FS Wrongs manesh redress breed revenge. Suppression of religious identities because of fundamentalist activities breeds an opposed fundamentalism that can only drag us into an endless cycle of vitiating violence. This is precisely what happens in case of Javed who becomes part of a riot-rousing group with its own fundamentalist agenda as a result of that ambience of unbelongingness which a Muslim often has to face and which mahsh exemplified in the text through the episode involving the delivery of a letter.


As Javed n opens the gate to deliver the letter, a man comes out and orders him to go back after leaving the letter on the wall.

And he only picks up the letter after cleaning and wiping io both the letter and the place on the wall where it was kept. It is these actions and rit gestures that doubly alienate members of minority communities who find respite through the seductive rhetoric of an opposed fundamentalism which virtually drugs them into an amoral trance that renders possible the committing of immoral acts, including those C terrorist strikes which continue to lacerate datgani times: I was swayed by what now appears to me as cheap sentiment.

As one who has peered into the abyss and come back, Javed indeed emerges as a heroic character whose very rejection of the fundamentalist indoctrination opens the space for that world beyond communal polarisation which is sheltered alike from the ingrained prejudices that govern Aruna as well as those wounds of past fial continue to traumatise the likes mahesy Hardika.

He welcomes the warmth of my hand. And he welcomes it! You can bathe Him day and night, you can splash holy water on Him but you cannot remove my touch from His form. You cannot remove my smell with sandal paste and attars and fragrant flowers because it belongs to a human being Vol. That is the strongest fragrance in the world!

Through his young characters Dattani perhaps seeks to foreground the possibility of a new India, not directly mahesu by the trauma of Partition and its sllutions, which majesh willing to move beyond engraved barriers in search of better times. And the location of the young characters, as the harbingers of such change also perhaps indicates the responsibility that the youth must shoulder to move beyond the morass of communal hatred.

However, as Derrida has shown, all textual strategies of thematic cohesiveness are disrupted by gaps, silences or dartani figures, banished to the n peripheries, which haunt our apparently unified structures Derrida Where does his corpse lie in this ethic of tolerance and er forgiveness?

How will his family members respond to either Javed or that acquaintance of his who committed the murder? Will they be able to forgive or remain entrapped in that same cycle of sterile hate? This particular textual ghost thus lays bare a series of rit unquiet debates about public posture and private response, between forgetfulness and forgiveness, between love and justice. Dattani, as ever, fonal not provide us with final solutions and faithfully holds a mirror up to the complexities that confront us.

Do you think…do you think those boys will ever come back? Sllutions you call them, they will come. Ashis Nandy, in a seminar after the Gujrat carnage worryingly observed: The forces the Gujarat violence might have released are a different kettle of fish.

They seem to have done what the Partition riots did. Also, given that they have been arguably the first video riots in India — riots taking place in front of Solutjons cameras — their impact will be pan-Indian and international. The minorities all mahssh the country have seen the experiments in ethnic cleansing and the attempts to break the economic backbone of the Muslim community.

The sense of desperation brewing among the Gujarati Muslims is likely to be contagious. Will it be another case of Palestine now onwards, at least in Gujarat?

Eattani facie, Modi has done his job. We, our children and grandchildren — above all, the Gujaratis — will have to learn to live with a state of civil war. Nandy, para However, following the example of Barak Obama finxl should also recall for our reading the words of Martin Luther King Jr.: I refuse to sollutions the idea that the ‘isness’ of man’s present nature makes him morally incapable of reaching up for the eternal ‘oughtness’ that forever confronts him.

Reflections on the Origin and Spread of e Nationalism. The Location of Culture. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. Accessed on May 24,

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