M Microprocessor Programming Manual Motorola M Microprocessor Programming Manual Motorola processor execution of machine language instructions on another computer. Although the simulator program does not match the microprocessor’s real time. 8-BIT MICROPROCESSOR. PROGRAMMING MANUAL. Original Issue: This advanced family of processors is compatible with all M peripheral parts.
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The “sixty-eight hundred” is an 8-bit microprocessor designed and first manufactured by Motorola in A significant design feature was that the M family proyramming ICs required only a single five-volt power supply at a time when most other microprocessors required three voltages. The M Microcomputer System was announced in March and was in full production by the end of that year. It has 72 instructions with seven addressing modes for a total of opcodes. In addition to the ICs, Motorola also provided a complete assembly language development system.
The customer could use the software on a remote timeshare computer or on an in-house minicomputer system. An expansive documentation package included datasheets on all ICs, two assembly language programming manuals, and a page application manual that showed how to design a point-of-sale computer terminal.
The was popular in computer peripheralstest equipment applications and point-of-sale terminals. It also found use in arcade games  and pinball machines. Galvin Manufacturing Corporation was founded in ; the company name was changed to Motorola in Motorola’s transistors and integrated circuits were used in-house for their communication, military, automotive and consumer products and they were also sold to other companies.
In the early s Motorola started a project that developed their first microprocessor, the MC This was followed by single-chip microcontrollers such as the MC and MC Motorola did not chronicle the development of the microprocessor the way that Intel did for their microprocessors. In the Computer History Museum interviewed four members of the microprocessor design team. Their recollections can be confirmed and expanded by magazine and journal articles written at the time. By the time the project was finished, Bennett had 17 chip designers and layout people working on five chips.
LaVell had 15 to 20 system engineers and there was another applications engineering group of similar size. Tom Bennett had a background in industrial controls and had worked for Victor Comptometer in the s designing the first electronic calculator to use MOS ICs, the Victor Bennett joined Motorola in to design calculator ICs. He was soon assigned as the chief architect of the microprocessor project that produced the In September Robert H. Cushman then asked “Tom Bennett, master architect of the “, to comment about this new competitor.
Jeff LaVell joined Motorola in and worked in the computer industry marketing organization. They would study the customer’s products and try to identify functions that could be implemented in larger integrated circuits at a lower cost.
The result of the survey was a family of 15 building blocks; each could be implemented in an integrated circuit. John Buchanan was a memory designer at Motorola when Bennett asked him to design a voltage doubler for the It was easy to eliminate the -5 volt supply but the MOS transistors needed a supply of 10 to 12 volts. This on-chip voltage doubler would supply the higher voltage and Buchanan did the circuit design, analysis and layout for the microprocessor. He received patents on the voltage doubler and the chip layout.
Later Orgill would design the MOS Technology microprocessor that was socket compatible with the Bill Lattin joined Motorola in and his group provided the computer simulation tools for characterizing the new MOS circuits in the Bill Mensch joined Motorola in after graduating from the University of Arizona. He had worked several years as an electronics technician before earning his BSEE degree.
The first year at Motorola was a series of three-month rotations through four different areas.
Mensch did a flowchart for a modem that would become the He also worked the application group that was defining the M system. Mensch was a major contributor to the design of this chip and received a patent on the IC layout  and was named as a co-inventor of seven other M system patents.
Mike Wiles was a design engineer in Jeff LaVell’s group and made numerous customer visits with Tom Bennett during product definition phase. Chuck Peddle joined the design team in after the processor design was done but he contributed to overall system design and to several peripheral chips, particularly the PIA parallel interface.
Peddle and John Buchanan built one of the earliest demonstration boards. There he led the team that designed the microprocessor family. The Motorola and the Intel were designed at the same time and were similar in function. The had two accumulators and a bit index register.
When the was reset, the program counter was cleared and the processor started at memory location The loaded the program counter from the highest address and started at the memory location stored microprkcessor.
A disk controller could therefore transfer data into memory with no load on the processor. It was even possible to have two processors access the same memory. MOS ICs typically used dual clock signals microproccessor two-phase clock in the s. These were generated externally for both the and the Higher-speed versions of microproocessor microprocessors were released by Other divisions in Motorola developed components for the M family.
The buffers for address and data buses were standard Motorola products. Motorola could supply every IC, transistor, and diode necessary to build an MCbased computer.
Full text of “Motorola M Microprocessor Applications Manual”
The first-generation metal—oxide—semiconductor MOS chips used p-channel field-effect transistors, known as p-channel MOSFETs p-channel describes the configuration of the transistor. These ICs were used in calculators and in the manal microprocessor, the Intel They were easy to produce but were slow and difficult to interface to the popular TTL digital logic ICs.
They were much more microoprocessor to produce because of an increased sensitivity to contamination that required an ultra clean production line and meticulous process control. These used “enhancement-mode” MOS transistors. There was a newer fabrication technology that used “depletion-mode” MOS transistors as loads, which would allow smaller and faster circuits this was also known as depletion-load nMOS.
The “depletion-mode” processing required extra steps so Motorola decided to stay with “enhancement-mode” for the new single-supply-voltage design. Each wafer could produce to integrated circuit chips or dies. The technical literature would state the length and width of each chip in “mils” 0. The Intel microprocessor chip size was mils x mils 4.
Processing wafers required multiple steps and m8600 would appear at various locations on the wafer during each step. The larger the chip the more likely it would encounter a defect. The target size for the was mils 4. This also allowed faster clock speeds, the MC68A00 would operate at 1.
The new parts were available in July ,anual The first working chips were produced January  and the first public announcement was in February The first working MC chips were produced in February and engineering samples m68000 given to select customers. Hewlett-Packard in Loveland, Colorado wanted the MC for a new desktop calculator and had a prototype system working by June.
The M microcomputer system was prkgramming in production by November The kit included all six chips in the M family plus application and programming manuals. Link Young was the product marketer that developed the total system approach kicroprocessor the M family release. In addition to releasing a full set of support chips with the microprocessor, Motorola offered a software and hardware development system. The software development tools were available on remote time-sharing computers or the source code was available so the customer could use an in-house computer system.
The software that would run on a microprocessor system was typically written in assembly language. The development system consisted of a text microprkcessor, assembler and a simulator.
The principal design effort on the M family was complete in mid, and many engineers left the group or the company. Several factors led to the break-up of the design group. The entire engineering team was scheduled to relocate there in The team leaders were unsuccessful with their pleas to senior management on deferring the move.
A recession hit the semiconductor industry in mid resulting in thousands of layoffs. A November issue of Electronics magazine reports that Motorola had laid off 4, micrporocessor, Texas Instruments 7, and Signetics 4, Motorola did not sell the division but they did change the management and organization.
Chuck Peddle and other Motorola engineers had been visiting customers to explain the benefits of microprocessors. Many customers were hesitant to adopt this new microprocessor technology with such a high price tag.
The actual price for production quantities was much lower. In mid Peddle proposed a simplified microprocessor that could be sold at a much lower price. Motorola’s “total product family” strategy did not focus on the price of MPU but on reducing the customer’s total design cost. Peddle continued working for Motorola while looking for investors for his new microprocessor concept. He was followed by seven other Motorola engineers: These microprocessors would not run programs because they had a different architecture and instruction set.
This would be done by removing non-essential features to reduce the chip size. An 8-bit stack pointer was used instead of a bit one. The second accumulator was omitted. Chuck Peddle was a very effective spokesman and the MOS Technology microprocessors were extensively covered in the trade press. Advertisements for the appeared in several publications the first week of August