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To receive news and publication updates for The Scientific World Journal, enter your email address in the box below. This is an lkpezia access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

The present study investigates the potential benefits of the Mexican medicinal plant Lopezia racemosa Onagraceae. Extracts and fractions from ,opezia parts of this plant were assessed to determine their antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities in vitro. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with various solvents raceemosa fractionated accordingly. Extracts and fractions were tested against a panel of nine bacterial and four fungal species.

The antiparasitic activity was tested against Leishmania donovaniwhereas the anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was lopezzia by measuring the secretion of interleukin-6 from human-derived macrophages. The same macrophage cell line was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of the compounds. Various extracts and fractions showed antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, and anti-inflammatory activities. The hexanic fraction HF b was the most interesting fraction with antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities.

The benefit of L. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the biological activities of L. In Mexican folk medicine, L. Chemical profiles from L. The main tannin isolated from this family, oenothein B, has both in vivo and in vitro antitumor activities [ 9 — 12 ]. Among lopszia, isolated compounds from this family include flavonols, glycoflavones, flavones, and chalcones [ 1314 ].

Most of the genera studied possess mainly flavonols, which include myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, and remarkable amounts of various phenolic acids [ racekosa715 ].

Furthermore, some species produce significant amount of tocopherols, compounds that have been used as chemotaxonomic markers within the Onagraceae family [ 16 ]. Thus, in the present study, we investigate the antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic activities of L. A total of fractions corresponding to lpezia of the three extracts were collected and combined according to their TLC profile, generating five hexanic fractions, four chloroformic fractions, and six methanolic fractions, which racsmosa further analyzed for their bioactivity properties.

The acid-alcohol-fast Mycobacterium smegmatis mc 2 ATCC was also included in the panel of bacteria to be tested. The parasite Leishmania donovani Sudan strain 2S was assessed for antiparasitic activity of the extracts and fractions and was kindly provided by Dr. Bacterial strains were cultured in Mueller-Hinton medium Becton and Dickinson except for Mycobacterium rcemosawhich was cultured in Trypticase Soy broth Becton and Dickinson supplemented with 0.


Bacterial stocks were maintained on the same medium supplemented with 1. For fungal strains, Sabouraud broth Becton and Dickinson was used.

In the case of filamentous fungi, bioactivities were tested using harvested spores. Spores of Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum were carefully harvested and stored as published [ 17 ]. For Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformansthe same protocol used for bacterial strains was followed, but with Sabouraud broth. Leishmania donovani promastigotes were cultured as published [ 17 ]. A microdilution assay was used to determine the antimicrobial activities in a well plate and according to published protocols [ 17 ].

The minimal inhibitory concentrations MICs were determined when no turbidity in the well was ,opezia. DMSO and untreated inocula were used as negative controls, while racemmosa, ampicillin, gentamicin, and rifampicin were used as positive controls.

In the case of T. DMSO and untreated inocula were used as negative controls, while rxcemosa B was used as a positive control. Compounds were evaluated at the final concentrations mentioned for the antibacterial activities. Untreated parasites and DMSO were used as negative controls.

Lopezia racemosa | Paul Shirley Succulents

Propidium iodide PI was used to evaluate membrane damage [ 18 ]. The half maximal inhibitory concentration IC 50 was calculated by plotting the compound concentrations against the percentage of damaged cells. The next day, plates were washed with phosphate buffered saline PBSsupplemented with 0.

Values are expressed as percentage of inflammation after normalization to LPS. Extracts and fractions obtained from L. The antifungal activity of L. Extracts and fractions were also tested against the parasite L. We assessed the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities of the fractions and extracts that showed either antibacterial, antifungal, or antiparasitic activities.

Cytotoxicity was evaluated with human-derived macrophages THP-1 cells.

Mosquito Flower

The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by measuring the secretion of IL-6 from macrophages exposed to fractions and extracts.

In the present study, we examine the biological properties of L. To the best of our knowledge, we provide the first experimental evidence demonstrating its antimicrobial activities against bacteria, fungi, and a parasite. Unfortunately, results from this study cannot be compared to the literature because of the lack of reports about the genus Lopezia. However, extracts from different members of the Onagraceae family, such as Epilobium and Ludwigiahave broad activity against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria [ 19 — 22 ].

Two fractions of L.

Mosquito Flower Lopezia racemosa

In agreement with our study, the extract of E. Several studies have also shown that extracts from E. On the other hand, ethanol extract of Oenothera biennis was highly active racdmosa the phytopathogen Fusarium semitectum [ 26 ]. In this study, we report for the first time that two fractions HF 11—14b and MF 28—36 and one extract CE showed significant antiparasitic activity against L.


Despite their antimicrobial activities, fraction MF 28—36 was not toxic to macrophages. Moreover, a single fraction HF 11—14b showed significant anti-inflammatory activity. Diverse studies have demonstrated that different members of the Onagraceae family have selective anti-inflammatory activity in animal models [ 781527 ] and cytotoxic activities against several tumor cell lines [ 111228 — 30 ]. It is remarkable that extracts of the members of the Onagraceae family have diverse biological effects.

These properties are due to the high content of polyphenols, such eacemosa tannins and flavonoids. Phytochemical analyses have shown that oenothein B is the main tannin isolated from Epilobium and Oenotherafollowed by other flavonoids such as myricetin- quercetin- and kaempferol-glycosides [ 6 — 8 ].

Due to its high abundance, oenothein B is considered the main compound responsible for the antitumor, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and phagocytic activities both in vivo and in vitro [ 9 — 1131 ]. Yet, other compounds present in the extracts may exert different biological activities as observed in different studies.

In this regard, extracts of L. In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time that extracts of the aerial parts of L.

The fraction HF 11—14b deserves further study to elucidate its specific biological properties and identify the compound s responsible for its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. The Scientific World Journal. Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts. Table of Contents Alerts. Abstract The present lopezja investigates the potential benefits of the Mexican medicinal plant Lopezia racemosa Onagraceae. Introduction Lopezia racemosa Cav. Materials and Methods 2.

Antimicrobial and Antiparasitic Assays A microdilution assay was used to determine the antimicrobial activities in a well plate and according to published protocols [ 17 ].

Antimicrobial Activities Extracts and fractions obtained from L. Antiparasitic activity exhibited by fractions of Lopezia racemosa. Leishmania donovani promastigote growth inhibition was evaluated after incubation of the parasites with extracts and fractions. Untreated promastigotes and DMSO were used as negative controls. Half-maximal inhibitory concentrations IC 50 of L. Cytotoxic effects of extracts and fractions of Lopezia racemosa. Human macrophages THP-1 racemosx were used to assess the cytotoxic effects of bioactive compounds using propidium iodide staining.

Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts and fractions from Lopezia racemosa. An inflammatory process was elicited by exposing macrophages racempsa LPS. Extracts and fractions were exposed overnight to macrophages prior to the addition of LPS.

The anti-inflammatory process was evaluated by measuring the secretion of IL-6 into the supernatant. View at Google Scholar W.

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