Due to the diversity of medicinal plants and herbal medicines, it is dif- ficult for Annex 2 lists the monographs in alphabetical order of the plant name, while. list of antidiabetic plants in india filetype pdf plants are usually installed as the final part of landscape construction. Hard Landscape: Civil work component of. In this study area, herbal remedies are considered convenient for mentioned plant extracts for antidiabetic list of antidiabetic plants in india filetype pdf Of these.
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Plants have always been a source of drugs for humans since time immemorial. The Indian traditional system of medicine is replete with the lisr of plants for the management of diabetic conditions.
There are about plants which have been reported to show antidiabetic potential. The present review antidiabetci aimed at providing in-depth information about the antidiabetic potential and bioactive compounds present in Ficus religiosa, Pterocarpus marsupium, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantiaand Trigonella foenum-graecum.
The review provides a starting point for future studies aimed at isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive antidiabetic compounds present in these plants. Diabetes mellitus is a growing problem worldwide entailing enormous financial burden and jn care policy issues [ 1 ].
According to International Diabetes Federation IDFthe number of individuals with diabetes in crossed million, with an estimated 4.
The I subcontinent has emerged as the capital of this diabetes epidemic. The reported prevalence of diabetes in adults between the ages of 20 and 79 is as follows: Indians show a significantly higher age-related prevalence of diabetes when compared with several other populations [ 4 ].
For a given BMI, Asian Indians display a higher insulin level which is an indicator of peripheral insulin resistance. The insulin resistance in Indians is thought to be due to their higher body fat percentage [ 56 ].
Excess body fat, typical abdominal deposition pattern, low muscle mass, and racial predisposition may explain the prevalence of hyperinsulinemia and increased development of type 2 diabetes in Asian Indians. Diabetes is characterized by metabolic dysregulation primarily of carbohydrate metabolism, manifested by hyper-glycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, impaired insulin action, or both [ 7 ].
The WHO has listed 21, plants, which are used for medicinal purposes around the world. Among these, species are in India [ 9 ]. There are about plants which have been reported to show antidiabetic potential [ 10 ]. A wide collection of plant-derived active principles representing numerous bioactive compounds have established their role for possible use in the treatment of diabetes [ 10 ].
The most common and effective antidiabetic medicinal plants of Indian origin are Babul Acacia arabicabael Aegle marmelosechurch steeples Agrimonia eupatoriaonion Allium cepagarlic Allium sativumghrita kumara Aloe veraneem Azadirachta indicaash gourd Benincasa hispidaBeetroot Beta vulgarisfever nut Caesalpinia bonducellabitter apple Citrullus colocynthisivy gourd Coccinia indicaeucalyptus Eucalyptus globulesbanyan tree Ficus benghalenesisgurmar Gymnema sylvestregurhal Hibiscus rosa-sinesissweet potato Ipomoea batataspurging Nut Jatropha curcasmango Mangifera indicakarela Momordica charantiamulberry Morus albakiwach Mucuna prurienstulsi Ocimum sanctumbisasar Pterocarpus marsupiumanar Punica granatumjamun Syzygium cuminigiloy Tinospora cordifoliaand methi Trigonella foenum-graecum.
All these plants are a rich source of phytochemicals. The present review presents the antidiabetic efficacy of some important plants used in traditional system of medicine in India for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ficus religiosacommonly known as peepal in India, belongs to family Moraceae.
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Ficus religiosa has been reported to be used in the traditional system of Ayurveda for the treatment of diabetes [ 11 ]. Decoction prepared from the bark is used in treatment of diabetes [ 13 ].
The plant is believed to contain several bioactive principles including tannins, saponins, polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, and sterols. Sitosterol-d-glucoside present in the bark of Ficus religiosa is believed to elicit hypoglycemic activity in rabbits [ 14 ]. The bioactive components present in Ficus are leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidinO-alpha-L rhamnoside [ 1516 ]. The phytoconstituents present in Ficus can impart a significant antidiabetic effect.
It has been reported to contain phytosterols, flavonoids, tannins, and furanocoumarin derivatives, namely, bergapten and bergaptol [ 17 ]. The leaves of Ficus religiosa have also been studied for antihyperglycemic activity [ 18 ]. Oral incorporation of aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa for 21 days caused a significant lowering in blood glucose levels, and an elevated level of insulin has been observed.
The skeletal muscle is an important site for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Decrease in muscle and hepatic glycogen in diabetes was observed to be corrected by peepal extract [ 1920 ].
Secondary complications of diabetes that is hypercholesteremia and hypertriglyceridemia were found to decrease through significantly reduced serum triglycerides and total cholesterol levels in STZ-diabetic rats [ 21 ].
Oxidative stress is one of the major etiologies in the pathogenesis and complications of type 2 diabetes. Restoration of glutathione and inhibition of malondialdehyde content has shown the antioxidative property of Ficus religiosa [ 23 ]. Eugenia jambolana black plum or jamun belongs to the family Myrtaceae.
The most commonly used plant parts are seeds, leaves, fruits, and bark. The bark is scaly gray, and the trunk is forked.
There are fragrant white flowers in branched clusters at stem tips and purplish-black oval edible berries. The berries contain only one seed. The taste is generally acidic to fairly sweet but astringent. Jamun has been reported to be used in numerous complementary and alternative medicine systems of India and, before the discovery of insulin, was a frontline antidiabetic medication even in Europe.
The brew prepared by jamun seeds in boiling water has been used in the various traditional systems of medicine in India [ 24 ]. Eugenia jambolana is one of the widely used medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes and several other diseases. The plant is rich in compounds containing anthocyanins, glucoside, ellagic acid, isoquercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and hydrolysable tannins galloyl castalagin and casuarinin. The seeds also contain alkaloid jambosine and glycoside jamboline, which slows down the diastatic conversion of starch into sugar [ 25 ].
The whole plant of Eugenia jambolana is reported to show antioxidative defence due to numerous phytochemical constituents present in it. The bark of jamun is rich in several bioactive compounds including quercetin, betulinic acid, B- sitosterol, eugenin, ellagic and gallic acid [ 26 ], bergenin [ 27 ], tannins [ 28 ], and flavonoids.
Journal of Diabetes Research
Fruits contain glucose, fructose, raffinose [ 29 ], malic acid [ 30 ], and anthocyanins [ 31 ]; leaves are rich in acylated flavonol glycosides [ 32 ], quercetin, myricetin, and tannins [ 33 ] all of which have hypoglycemic ability. The blood glucose-lowering effect of Eugenia jambolana may be due to increased secretion of insulin from the pancreas or by inhibition of insulin degradation [ 34 ]. Eugenia jambolana is also reported to have lipid-lowering effect evidenced by reduction of blood cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids [ 35 ].
This effect has been reported to be due to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, and glycosides in the extract which is reported to decrease the activity of enzyme 3-HMG Co-A reductase in liver [ 36 ]. Eugenia jambolana seed extract is reported to reduce blood pressure probably due to the ellagic acid present in it [ 33 ].
Addition of ethanolic extract of seeds and seed powder of Eugenia jambolana in alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed significant reduction in blood sugar level and enhancement in the histopathology of pancreatic islets [ 37 ]. Decrease in glycosuria and blood urea levels has also been reported.
Similar kind of results has also been reported in numerous studies done on dogs and rabbits [ 3839 ]. Eugenia jambolana fruit juice is diuretic and has been reported to provide a soothing effect on human digestive system [ 40 ].
The gastroprotective effect has also been reported in jamun seeds. Elevation of antioxidant status and mucosal defensive properties might be the possible mechanisms behind gastroprotective properties present in jamun. Presence of flavanoids in the seeds provides the gastric ulcer protective activity to jamun [ 40 ]. Jamun shows antiviral activity against goat pox and the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus [ 4142 ].
The efficacy of Eugenia jambolana has also been tested in preclinical and clinical studies [ 4344 ] for hypolipidemic [ 45 ], anti-inflammatory, [ 46 ], neuropsychopharmacological [ 47 ], antiulcer, [ 48 ], antibacterial [ 49 ], anti-HIV [ 50 ], antidiarrhoeal [ 49 ], and antihypertensive activities [ 47 ]. Momordica charantia bitter gourd or karela belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. Momordica charantia is a popular fruit used for the treatment of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and related conditions amongst the indigenous population of Asia, South America, and East Africa.
It is often used as a vegetable in diet.
Bitter gourd contains bioactive substances with antidiabetic potential such as vicine, charantin, and triterpenoids along with some antioxidants [ 51 ]. Several preclinical studies have documented the antidiabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of Momordica charantia inria various hypothesised mechanisms [ 52 ].
Several studies have demonstrated antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, and antidiabetic activities, in Momordica charantia [ 5354 ]; however, the antidiabetic activity has been widely reviewed.
In several animal studies, bitter gourd has been reported to ameliorate the metabolic syndrome, where diabetes is one of the risk factors [ 55 — 57 ]. In a study conducted on Taiwanese adults, a significant reduction in waist circumference, improvement in diabetes, and symptoms of metabolic syndrome has been observed [ 58 ]. The hypoglycemic and lipid-lowering properties of bitter melon have been observed [ 59 ].
Bitter gourd is also reported to inhibit absorption of glucose by inhibiting glucosidase and suppressing the activity of disaccharidases in the intestine [ 61 ]. Ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia is reported to show antihyperglycemic effect in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats which might be due to inhibition of glucosephosphatase and also stimulation of the activity of hepatic glucosephosphate dehydrogenase [ 62 ].
Studies have reported that triterpenoids may be the hypoglycemic components present in karela which could be responsible for activation of AMP-activated protein kinase fi,etype 63 ].
List of antidiabetic plants in india filetype pdf
The blood glucose-lowering activity of karela has been reported in several animal models [ 64 ]. Bitter melon is also effective in loosening adiposity. It is reported to decrease the weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal white adipose tissues [ 54 ].
Bitter melon is found effective in augmenting skeletal muscle strength, an effect which could be due to higher mRNA expression for the glucose transporter 4 antidibetic 55 ]. However, glycogen-loaded mice showed significant depressive effect on increasing the level of postprandial blood glucose after ingestion of Momordica charantia [ 65 ].
Saponins are also supposed to stimulate insulin secretion [ 66 ]. Every part of the plant is used as a therapeutic agent against several diseases. Ocimum holy basil is reported to grow worldwide.
Nutritional and chemical composition of holy basil makes it a plant with immense potential. Eugenol, the active constituent anntidiabetic in O. Major bioactive constituents present in the leaves and stems of holy basil include flavonoids, saponins, tannins, triterpenoids, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, isothymusin, isothymonin, cirsimaritin, orientin, plante vicenin.
Tulsi leaves oil contains eugenol, ursolic acid, carvacrol, linalool, limatrol, plans caryophyllene along with eugenol. Seeds oil is known to have fatty acids and sitosterol while seed mucilage contains some sugars. Anthocyanins are present in green leaves. Furthermore, tulsi is also rich in vitamins, minerals, chlorophyll, and many other phytonutrients. Antidiabetic properties of tulsi were filetypw in Ayurveda [ 68 ].
A significant reduction in blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and urea lpants with a simultaneous increase in glycogen, hemoglobin, and protein in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats has been observed when rats were supplemented with ethanolic extract of O.
Leaf extract of O. Studies have reported that oral administration of alcoholic extract of leaves of O. Improvement in the action filtype exogenous insulin in normal rats has also been recorded [ 73 ]. Mixed extract of P. Chloroform extracts of aerial parts of tulsi have been able to ameliorate the derangements in lipid metabolism caused due to diabetes mellitus in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.