Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Described as one of the most influential figures in human Die Ökonomisch-philosophischen Manuskripte aus dem Jahre , auch bekannt unter dem Namen Pariser Manuskripte, wurden von Karl Marx. Many of these impressions also struck Karl Marx, who at the age of . they are ‘ Ökonomisch-philosophische Manuskripte aus dem Jahre ‘. Results 1 – 30 of 49 Okonomisch-Philosophische Manuskripte Aus Dem Jahre by Karl Marx and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles.
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Manuscripts and notebooks of Finally, a table reconstructs the chronological order of the manuscripts and notebooks of excerpts that Marx composed in Paris between the autumn of and January This is how Balzac described in one of his tales the effect of the metropolis on those who did not know it thoroughly.
During the years before the revolution, the city was inhabited by artisans and workers in constant political agitation. From its colonies of exiles, revolutionaries, writers and artists and the general social ferment, it had acquired an intensity found in few other epochs. Their close proximity meant that they exercised a continual influence on one another cf.
In short, it was the place to be at that particular moment in history. Many of these impressions also struck Karl Marx, who at the age of twenty-five had moved there in October ; they profoundly marked his intellectual evolution, which matured decisively during his time in Paris. But this was now shaken by the tangible vision of the proletariat. The uncertainty generated by the problematic atmosphere of the times, which saw the rapid consolidation of a new social-economic reality, was dissipated once he made contact, both theoretically and experientially, with the Parisian working class and its living and working conditions.
Settling on political economy.
When he had been working with the Rheinische ZeitungMarx had already grappled with particular economic questions, but always from a legal or political viewpoint. From that point his studies, hitherto mainly philosophical, political and historical, turned to the new discipline that would become the fulcrum of his scientific concerns and mark out a new horizon he would never abandon cf.
Marx in Paris: Manuscripts and notebooks of
The Jew was the metaphor and the historical vanguard for the relations it produced, a worldly figure that became synonymous with capitalism tout court cf. Immediately afterwards Marx began massive reading in a manuskrpte field of study, and his critical comments, as a few illustrations will demonstrate, punctuate the manuscripts and notebooks of excerpts and notes that he compiled, as usual, from the reading material.
The guiding thread of his work was kar, need to unveil and oppose the greatest mystification of political economy: Marx was deeply affected by this blindness and lack of historical sense on the part of the economists, who thereby tried to conceal and justify the inhumanity of the economic conditions of their time by presenting them as a fact of nature.
Political economy, then, takes the regime of private property, the associated mode of production and the corresponding economic categories as immutable for all eternity. The man of bourgeois society karx as if he were natural man. With these supports, Marx was able to achieve the central cognitive grasp of the provisional character of history. The bourgeois economists presented laws of the capitalist mode of production as eternal laws of human society.
This different way of understanding social relations had important consequences, chief of which were undoubtedly those concerning the concept of alienated labour. Unlike the economists, or Hegel himself, for whom it was a natural and immutable condition of society, Marx set out on the path that would lead him to reject the anthropological dimension of alienation in favour of a conception that rooted it historically in a certain structure of production and social relations: Marx reached these conclusions by collecting the forceful theories of economic science, criticizing their constitutive elements and inverting their results.
Karl Marx: Werke, Artikel, Entwürfe. März 1843 bis August 1844
This involved him in the most intense and unremitting effort. The Parisian Marx is ravenous for reading material and devotes day and night to it. He is a man filled with enthusiasms and projects, who draws up work plans so huge that he could never have seen them through, and who studies every document relevant to the object of investigation; he is absorbed in the lightning advance of his knowledge and the shifting interests that for a time carry him towards new horizons, further resolutions and still more areas of research.
Then he threw himself like a madman into political economy, which suddenly took priority over the task of finally clearing the terrain in Germany of the transcendental criticism of Bauer et al. Then another hundred projects: Yet the most prolific young man in the Hegelian Left had still published less than many of the others.
The incompleteness that would characterize all his work was already present in the labours of his year in Paris. There was something incredible about his meticulousness, as he refused to write a sentence unless he could prove it in ten different ways. His notes are thus extremely precious. They allow us to gauge the scope of his research, contain some reflections of his own, and should be considered an integral part of his oeuvre. This is also true of the Parisian period, when his manuscripts and reading notes testify to the close and indissoluble manuskripge between what he wrote and the comments he made on the work of others.
Manuscripts and notebooks of excerpts: Despite the incomplete and fragmentary character of the [Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts] ofnearly all readings of them have either ignored or treated as unimportant the philological problems they present cf. They were first published in their entirety only in — in two separate editions, moreover.
Not only the name but also the content varies between the two, and there are major differences in the order of the sections. Despite these evident problems of form, despite confusion following the publication of different versions and, above all, the knowledge that much of the second manuscript the most important but scattered one was missing from the set, none of the critical interpreters or compilers of new editions undertook a re-examination of the originals.
Yet this was especially necessary for the text that weighed so heavily in debates among the various interpretations of Marx. Written between May and August, the [Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts] are not a work that develops in a systematic or prearranged manner. Not homogeneous or even closely interconnected between their parts, the parser are an evident expression of a position in movement. A comparison of them with his writings of the period, published or unpublished, decisively demonstrates the importance of his reading for the development of his ideas.
The only note was added later, on the right side of the manudkripte in question, which was the place he usually kept for this purpose. In fact, although these are the most extensive excerpts, they contain virtually no comments. As these studies advanced, his critical notes were no longer sporadic but punctuated his summaries and expanded with his knowledge as he moved from author to author.
To underline once more the importance of the excerpts, it should be pointed out just how useful these notes were to him both when he made them and subsequently.
Above all, given that Marx was in the habit of re-reading his notes at a distance of time, he was able to use these exhaustive materials in the [Grundrisse]as well as in the economic manuscripts ofbetter known as Theories of Surplus-Valueand the first volume of Capital.
Marx developed his ideas both in the [Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts] and in the notebooks of excerpts from his reading. The manuscripts are filled with quotations, the first being almost a straightforward collection, and the notebooks of compilations, though largely centred on the texts he was reading at the time, are accompanied with his comments.
To separate these manuscripts from the rest, to extrapolate them from their context, may therefore lead to errors of interpretation.
Critique of philosophy and critique of politics. Those were times of profound economic and social transformation, and mafx of a huge increase in the numbers of the proletariat. With his discovery of the proletariat Marx was able to break up into class terms the Hegelian concept of civil society. The task was to demonstrate one of the main contradictions of bourgeois society: The revolt of the Silesian weavers in June afforded Marx a last opportunity to develop his thinking. More generally, Marx considered that those who advocated the reform of society the objective of socialist doctrines at the timewage equality and a reorganization of work within the capitalist system were still prisoners of the assumptions they combated Proudhon or, above all, did not understand the true relationship between private property and alienated labour.
The closer Marx felt socialist doctrines to be to his own thought, the more strongly he felt the need for clarity and the more sharply he was critical of them. The working out of his own conception led him into constant comparisons between the ideas around him and the results of his ongoing studies.
The speed with which he was maturing made this a necessity. The same fate lay in store for the Hegelian Left. Indeed, his judgements matx its main exponents were the most severe, since they also represented self-criticism of his own past. The Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitungthe monthly edited by Bruno Bauer, peremptorily declared from its pages: Its object is its enemy, which it wants not to manjskripte but to exterminate.
It was the gulf separating the quest for free self-consciousness from the quest for free labour. He bid farewell forever to philosophy that had not reached this awareness and achieved its necessary conversion into philosophy jarx praxis. His conclusions were not speculative but directed towards revolutionary action cf. His conception of politics itself changed profoundly. So, a somewhat vague critique of amrx political mediation of the state and the economic mediation of money, conceived as obstacles to the realization of a Feuerbachian common human essence, gives way to the critique of a historical relation in which material production begins to appear as the basis for any analysis and transformation of the present: What Marx proposes is no longer a generic demand for emancipation but a radical transformation of the real process of production.
As he came to these conclusions, Marx was planning various other investigations.
After The Holy Family he mars with the studies and excerpts of political economy, outlined a critique of Stirner, drew up a sketch for a work on the state, wrote a series of notes on Hegel, and prepared to draft a critique of the German economist Friedrich List that he went on to complete shortly afterwards. It was necessary to wait fifteen years, however, untilfor the first part of his work, the Contribution to a Critique of Political Economykarx see the light of day. The [Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts] and the books of excerpts and notes convey the direction he took in the first steps of this maxr.
His writings are filled with theoretical elements derived from predecessors and contemporaries.
None of the outlines or works from this period can be classified under a single discipline: What emerges from them is not a new system, a homogeneous whole, but a critical theory. He is a Marx who knows how to gather these different fields of knowledge and experience and, by weaving them together, to give birth to a revolutionary theory. His ideas, and particularly the economic observations that began to develop during his stay in Paris, were not the fruit of a sudden fulmination but the result of a process.
The excerpts are contained in pages divided into two columns. Large-format notebook consisting of pages with excerpts in two columns: Large-format notebook with pages in two columns. Smith, Recherches sur la nature et les causes de la richesse des nations. Small-format notebook with normal paging. Large-format notebook with pages in three and two columns. Small-format notebook with pages in two columns. Text written on large-format sheets in two columns. Sheet later put together with A 9.
There are also indirect references to: Large-format notebook with pages in two or rarely three columns. First two pages, with excerpts from Senofonte, are not divided into columns. Mid-September to January Large-format notebook with excerpts from Boisguillebert. Normal paging, except for a few pages in two columns. Large-format notebook with pages in two columns . For MarxHarmondsworth: The Histo ry of the Thirteen.