KEMAMPUAN BERTAHAN HIDUP TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM DAN TRICHODERMA VIRENS SETELAH DITUMBUHKAN BERSAMA DENGAN JAMUR. Perbanyakan Jamur Trichoderma sp pada Beberapa Media and Regeneration Method for Protoplast Production in Trichoderma harzianum. UJI EFEKTIFITAS Trichoderma harzianum DENGAN FORMULASI GRANULAR RAGI UNTUK MENGENDALIKAN PENYAKIT JAMUR AKAR PUTIH (Rigidoporus .
|Published (Last):||16 March 2008|
|PDF File Size:||15.47 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||20.27 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Trichoderma is a genus of fungi in the family Hypocreaceaethat is present in all soils, where they are the most prevalent culturable fungi. Many species in this genus can be characterized as opportunistic avirulent plant symbionts. The genus was described by Christiaan Jaumr Persoon inbut the taxonomy has remained difficult to resolve.
For a long time it was considered to consist of only one species, Trichoderma viridenamed for producing green mold. The genus was divided into five sections in by Bissett, partly based on the aggregate species described by Rifai: With the advent of molecular markers from onwards, Bissett’s scheme was largely confirmed but Saturnisporum was merged with Longibrachiatum.
While Longibrachiatum and Hypocreanum appeared monophyleticPachybasium was determined to be paraphyleticmany of its species clustering with Trichoderma. Druzhina rtichoderma Kubicek confirmed the genus as circumscribed was holomorphic. They identified 88 species which they demonstrated could be assigned to two major clades.
The belief that Trichoderma was monotypic persisted until the work of Rifai inwho recognised nine trichoserma. Hypocrea are teleomorphs of Trichoderma which themselves have Hypocrea as anamorphs. Colonies are transparent at first on media such as cornmeal dextrose agar CMD or white on richer media such as potato dextrose agar PDA. Mycelium are not typically obvious on CMD, conidia typically form within one week in compact or loose tufts in shades of green or yellow or less frequently white.
A yellow pigment may be secreted into the agar, especially on PDA. Some species produce a characteristic sweet or ‘coconut’ odor.
Conidiophores are highly branched and thus difficult to define or measure, loosely or compactly tufted, often formed in distinct concentric rings or borne along the scant aerial hyphae. Main branches of the conidiophores produce lateral side branches that may be paired or not, the longest branches distant from the tip and often phialides arising directly from the main axis near the tip.
The branches may rebranch, with the secondary branches often paired and longest trichooderma branches being closest to the main axis. The typical Trichoderma conidiophore, with paired branches assumes a pyramidal aspect. Typically the conidiophore terminates in one or a few phialides. In some species e. The main axis may be the same width as the base of the phialide or it jaumr be much wider.
Phialides are typically enlarged in the middle but may be cylindrical or nearly subglobose. Phialides may be densely clustered haraianum wide main axis e. Conidia typically appear dry but in some species they may be held in drops of clear green or yellow liquid e.
Conidia are typically smooth but tuberculate to finely warted conidia are known in a few rrichoderma.
Synanamorphs are formed by some species that also have typical Trichoderma pustules. Synanamorphs are recognized by their solitary conidiophores that are verticillately branched and that bear conidia in a drop of clear green liquid at the tip of each phialide.
Trichoderma – Wikipedia
Chlamydospores are typically unicellular subglobose and terminate short hyphae; they may also be formed within hyphal cells. Chlamydospores of some species are multicellular e.
Trichoderma genomes appear to be in the 30—40 Mb range, with approximately 12, genes being identifiable. Teleomorphs of Trichoderma are species of the jamru genus Hypocrea. These are characterized by the formation of fleshy, stromata in shades of light or dark brown, yellow or orange.
Typically the stroma is discoidal to pulvinate and limited in extent but stromata of some species are effused, sometimes covering extensive areas. Stromata of some species Podostroma are clavate or turbinate. Perithecia are completely immersed. Ascospores are bicellular but disarticulate at the septum early in development into 16 part-ascospores so that the ascus appears to contain 16 ascospores.
Ascospores are hyaline or green and typically spinulose. More than species of Hypocrea have been described but few have been grown in pure culture and even fewer have been described in modern terms. Trichoderma species are frequently isolated from forest or agricultural soils at all latitudes.
Hypocrea species are most frequently found on bark or on decorticated wood but many species grow on bracket fungi e. Several strains of Trichoderma have been developed as biocontrol agents against fungal diseases of plants. Most biocontrol agents are from the species T. The biocontrol agent generally grows in its natural habitat on the root surface, and so affects root disease in particular, but can also be effective against foliar diseases.
Their toxicity is due to absorption into cells and production of nano-channels that obstruct vital ion channels that ferry potassium and sodium ions across the cell membrane. This affects in the cells action potential profile, as seen in cardiomyocytespneumocytes and neurons leading to conduction defects. Trilongins are highly resistant to heat and antimicrobials making primary prevention the only management option. Cyclosporine A CsAa calcineurin inhibitor produced by the fungi Trichoderma polysporum Tolypocladium inflatum and Cylindrocarpon lucidumis an immunosuppressant prescribed in organ transplants to prevent rejection.
Trichodermabeing a saprophyte adapted to thrive in diverse situations, produces a wide array of enzymes. By selecting strains that produce a particular kind of enzyme, and culturing these in suspension, industrial quantities of enzyme can be produced.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. List of Trichoderma species. Canadian Journal of Botany. Retrieved 7 December Systematics, the Sexual State, and Ecology”.
European Journal of Applied Microbiology. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. Retrieved from ” https: Views Read Edit View history. In tricboderma projects Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies.