ISO INTERNATIONAL. STANDARD. ISO. Fourth edition. AMENDMENT 1. Series 1 freight containers —. Specification. This part of ISO gives the basic specifications and testing requirements for ISO series 1 thermal containers for international exchange and for conveyance. INTERNATIONAL. STANDARD. IS0. Fourth edition. l O Series 1 .. ISO Series 1 freight containers -.
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An intermodal container is a large standardized shipping containerdesigned and built for intermodal freight transportmeaning these containers can be used across different modes of transport — from ship to rail to truck — without unloading and reloading their cargo. These containers are known under a number of names, such as simply containercargo or freight container, ISO container, shipping, sea or ocean container, container van or Conex boxsea can or c can.
Intermodal containers exist in many types and a number of standardized sizes, but ninety percent of the global container fleet are so-called “dry freight” or “general purpose” containers,   durable uso steel boxes, mostly of either twenty or forty feet 6. Just like cardboard boxes and palletsthese containers are a means to bundle cargo and goods into larger, unitized loadsthat can be easily handled, moved, and stacked, and that will pack tightly in a ship or yard.
Intermodal containers share a number of key construction features to withstand the stresses of intermodal shipping, to facilitate their handling and to allow stacking, as well as being identifiable through their individual, unique ISO reporting mark.
Inthere were about For air freightthe more light-weight IATA -defined unit load device is used. By the s, lso across several 196-2 were carrying containers that could be transferred to other modes of transport.
Construction of these containers had a steel frame with wooden walls, floor, roof and doors. The first international standard for containers was established by the Bureau International des Containers et du Transport Intermodal B.
American containers at this time were not standardized, and these early containers were not yet stackable — neither in the U. The development of containerization was created in Europe and the US as a way to revitalize rail companies after the Wall Street Crash ofin New York, which resulted in economic collapse and a drop in all modes of transport.
A system was selected for Western Europe, based on the Netherlands’ system for consumer goods and waste transportation called Laadkisten lit. The use of standardized steel shipping containers began during the late s and early s, when commercial shipping operators and the US military started developing such units. From onwards, engineer Keith Tantlinger repeatedly contributed to the development of containers, as well as their handling and transportation equipment.
Inwhile at Brown Trailers Inc.
Steel castings on 1946-2 top corners provided lifting and securing points. The first containers were supplied by Brown, where McLean met Keith 196-2and hired him as vice-president of engineering and research. Each container had a frame with eight corner castings that could withstand stacking loads. ISO standards for containers were published between and by the International Maritime Organization.
These standards allow for more consistent loading, transporting, and unloading of goods in ports throughout the world, thus saving time and resources. The International Convention for Safe Containers is a regulation by the Inter-governmental Maritime Consultative Organization on the safe handling and transport of containers. It decrees that every container travelling internationally be fitted with a CSC Safety-approval Plate.
Longshoremen and related unions around the world struggled with this revolution in shipping goods. Unions for truckers and consolidators argued that the ILA rules were not valid work 149-62 clauses, because the work of stuffing and stripping containers away from the pier had not traditionally been done by ILA members.
Ninety percent of the global container fleet consists of “dry freight” or “general purpose” containers — both of standard and special sizes. Standard containers are 8-foot 2.
ISO Handbook “Freight containers” の収載規格一覧
ISO containers have castings with openings for twistlock fasteners at each of the eight corners, to allow gripping the box from above, below, or the side, and they can be stacked up to ten units high. Container capacity is often expressed in twenty-foot equivalent units TEUor sometimes teu. A twenty-foot equivalent unit is a measure of containerized cargo capacity equal to one standard foot 6. This is an approximate measure, wherein the height of the box is not considered.
In the global container fleet grew to a volume of ios Other than the standard, general purpose container, many variations exist for use with different cargoes. The most prominent of these are refrigerated containers a. Although these variations are not of the standard typethey mostly are ISO standard containers — in fact the ISO standard classifies a broad spectrum of container types kso great detail.
Aside from different size options, the most important container types are: Containers for Offshore use have a few different features, like pad eyesand must meet additional strength and design requirements, standards and certification, such as the DNV2. Offshore Containers and Associated Iwo Sets. A multitude of equipment, such as generators, has been installed in containers of different types to simplify logistics — see containerized equipment for more details.
Swap body units usually have the same bottom corner fixtures as intermodal containers, and often have folding legs under their frame so that they can be moved between trucks without using a crane. However they frequently don’t have the upper corner fittings of ISO containers, and ixo not stackable, nor can they be lifted and handled by the usual equipment like reach-stackers or straddle-carriers.
They are generally more expensive to procure. Basic dimensions and permissible gross weights of intermodal containers are largely determined by two ISO standards: Weights and dimensions of the most common standardized types of containers are given below.
Empty weight tare weight is not determined by the standards, but by the container’s 14966-2, and is therefore indicative, but necessary to calculate a net load figure, by subtracting it from the maximum permitted gross weight. The coupling holes require a double male twist lock to securely mate stacked containers together.
Pallet Wide containers have about 4 inches Many sea shipping providers in Europe allow these as overhangs on standard containers are sufficient and they fit in the usual interlock spaces or with the same floor panel the side ribs of pallet-wide containers are embossed to the outside instead of being molded to the inside.
This size being 8 feet 2. General purpose foot Generally, North American foot containers were not constructed strong enough to endure the rigors of ocean transport, but in container carrier APL introduced the first foot ocean-capable containers.
BS ISO 1496-2:2008
All new, reinforced foot boxes were built specifically for international trade and designed to withstand ocean voyages on its South China-to-Los Angeles service.
The United States military continues to use small containers, strongly reminiscent of their Transporter and Conex boxes of the s and s. These either comply with ISO standard dimensions, or are a direct derivative thereof.
The smallest of these, the Quadcon, exists in two heights: Tricon in truck bed for leaf collection or wood chips catcher. Each container is allocated a standardized ISO reporting mark ownership codefour letters long ending in either U, J or Z, followed by six digits and a check digit. Shipping containers are labelled with a series of identification codes that includes the manufacturer code, the ownership code, usage classification code, UN placard for hazardous goods and reference codes for additional transport control and security.
This showed advantages for intermodal transport of containers and swap bodies. Since July the new ILU codes can be registered, beginning with July all intermodal ISO containers and intermodal swap bodies must have an ownership code and by July all of them must bear a standard-conforming placard. Containers are transferred between rail, truck, and ship by container cranes at container terminals. Forkliftsreach stackersstraddle carriersand cranes may be used to load and unload trucks or trains outside of container terminals.
Swap bodyssidelifterstilt deck trucks, and hook trucks allow transfer to and from trucks with no extra equipment. ISO-standard containers can be handled and lifted in a variety of ways by their corner fixtures, but the structure and strength of foot type E containers limits their tolerance of side-lifting, nor can they be forklifted, based on ISO Containers can be transported by container shiptruck and freight trains as part of a single journey without unpacking.
Units can be secured in transit using ” twistlock ” points located at each corner of the container. Every container has a unique BIC code painted on the outside for identification and tracking, and is capable of carrying up to 20—25 metric tons. Costs for transport are calculated in twenty-foot equivalent units TEU.
When carried by rail, containers may be carried on flatcars or well cars. The latter are specially designed for container transport, and can accommodate double-stacked containers. However, the loading gauge of a rail system may restrict the modes and types of container shipment.
The smaller loading gauges often found in European railroads will only accommodate single-stacked containers. In some countries, such as the United Kingdom, there are sections of the rail network isp which high-cube containers cannot pass, or can pass through only on well cars.
On the other hand, Indian Railways runs double-stacked containers on flatcars under 25 kV overhead electrical wires. The wires must be at ieo 7. China Railway also runs io containers under overhead wires, but must use well cars to do so, since the is are only 6. Between andan average of 2, containers were reported lost at sea. Containers can also be transported in planes, as seen within intermodal freight transport.
However, transporting containers in this way is typically avoided due to the cost of doing such and the lack of availability of planes which can accommodate such awkwardly sized cargo.
There are special aviation containers, smaller than intermodal containers, called Unit load devices. There are many established methods and materials for stabilizing and securing intermodal containers loaded on ships, as well as the internal cargo inside the boxes.
Conventional restraint methods and materials such as steel strapping and wood blocking and bracing have been around for decades and are still widely used.
Polyester strapping and lashing, and synthetic webbings are also common today. Dunnage bags also known as “air bags” are used to keep unit loads in place.
Container Handbook – Section Electrical data in accordance with ISO
Flexi-bags can also be directly loaded, stacked in food-grade containers. Indeed, their standard shape 149-62 the entire ground surface of a 20′ ISO container. Dockworkers securing containers on a ship with steel lashing bars and turnbuckles. Intermodal containers which contain valuables can be 149-62 target of break-ins and burglary when left unattended.
In these cases, the container may be fitted with a isp system consisting of a motion detector and panel inside the container. The panel can trigger a siren, strobe, or light to deter intruders, or use a radio signal to alert security guards. Items that were packed incorrectly may come loose and cause a false response from an inside motion detector.
If criminals break in by cutting through a wall of the container, the obstructed motion detector becomes useless. Tomographic motion detectors work well in intermodal containers because they do not require a line of sight to detect motion. The entire container is covered by a volumetric sensing mesh that is not blocked by equipment or inventory.
Tomographic motion detection is not prone to misdetection due to dirt buildup as is the case for beams and infrared sensors. Container-sized units are also often used for moving large pieces of equipment to temporary sites. Specialised containers are particularly attractive to militaries already using containerisation iao move much of their freight around. Shipment of specialized equipment in this way simplifies logistics and may prevent identification of high value equipment by enemies.
Such systems may include command and control facilities, mobile operating theatres  or even missile launchers  such as the Russian 3M Klub surface-to-surface missile.