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CONSTITUCION WEB: “Gibbons v. Ogden” () Versión en castellano (parcial) y en inglés

Log In Sign Up. The relationship between the military and Argentine correspondents authorized to report from the islands during the Falklands War. A location at kilometers from the guerra. This paper uses a qualitative pocos corresponsales. The el conflicto, en las que recoge testimonios flito.

On rically have always distrusted each other: This com- and announced that all the information would be cen- plex relationship was already evident with one of the tralized in the Joint Staff Escudero, The fai- earliest war correspondents, William Russell, when he led negotiations between Argentina and Great Britain covered the Crimean War.

His first information was led to a war that had not been foreseen. On April 30, quite critical with the English army. These criticisms and would end on June 14 with the surrender of Argen- were not well accepted by the army, which decided not tina Kaplan, This allowed century, cannot be understood without analyzing its the British government to have total control over the communicative rattennbach, considering that no one can information, managing to hide until the end of the deny the relationship between public opinion and a war some facts that, if known by the public opinion at war Betancur, ; Pizarroso, ; Ramonet, It can be in sescargar source itself, in the of the Invincible ship as soon as they left the port of control of the channels used by the reporter or in the Portsmouth.

The Argentine government also exerted media themselves. US captain Arthur A. The relationship between the military and Argentine correspondents An example of this was the operation of the inva- who then shared their information with the excluded sion of the Caribbean island of Granada inwhich to reconcile a dual objective: This idea of sha- dfscargar and no one could report until the military gave ring military news by several newspapers had already informative access, 48 hours later, when the island emerged in the Franco-Prussian War, but there it did was under their control.

Images of the conflict that hours before the start of the operation, so coverage reached American homes showed young American was delayed. Reporters embarked seven hours later students running to meet the military. Subsequent than inforne military and then spent four hours at a US opinion polls revealed massive support from the US military base at Howard, where they reported the public for the restrictions imposed on journalists and first two days.

The coverage of the operation was in line with they demanded their right to inform. To ease tensions, expectations and no images of fallen US soldiers cir- General Vessey appointed a commission headed by reti- culated.

American public opinion gradually regained red General Winant Sidle to study how the relationship confidence in rattenbacj military. To this end, Sidle correspondents, since the military was not only able worked with the four branches of the Armed Forces to review the information, but managed to put the and the main journalistic organizations of the United press on its side, as rattenbach the past.

The method launched States. This trate the difficulties encountered by journalists gives you permission to attend [war] operations in any present in the Falklands to inform. Of all the professionals who covered the con- if this information control was disorganized. In general, we intend to provide a new vision of the The interviews were semi-structured and face-to- Falklands War through unpublished testimonies of face in Buenos Aires, except for two that had to be done the information professionals who lived the conflict by telephone, because the professionals were in other from the trenches.

They were conducted in April and May during a research stay, but the search for contacts began two months earlier.

Professionals who were in the Falklands interviewed Source: The relationship between the military and Argentine correspondents discontinued, in which he narrates his experience in were not allowed to pass through Rio Negro.

In this the conflict and that will be cited throughout the work. Thus, the official version of the relationship with In this phase highlights the role of journalists pre- the correspondents by the military branch during the sent in the area before the arrival of the correspon- Falklands conflict can be compared with the testimony dents authorized by Argentina and that faced the first of the interviewees.

Wollman arrived earlier March 23 archipelago were relatively few. For According to Wollmann, on the afternoon of April its part, the television network ATC Argentina Tele- 1, Governor Sir Rex Hunt radioed the entire popula- visora Coloralso public, sent three professionals a tion to remain indoors, because the Argentine inva- journalist, a camera operator and a camera assistant.

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Wollmann received an intimidating Eduardo Rotondo. After the surrender, he doing so. The foreign correspondents had greater limitations Wollmann was the only professional able to move and had to report covering the conflict from the She- inforje around the islands until the afternoon of 3 April, raton hotel in Comodoro Rivadavia. Argentine photo- when a plane loaded with special correspondents arri- graphers could travel all over Patagonia, but foreigners ved.

The relationship between the military and Argentine correspondents military was confused as to who he was inforje why he was improvised way, because the Military were not counting there, but since there was desxargar one from the press and he on the presence of an Argentine journalist in the area.

However, he says, after the At this stage occurred the planned arrival of the first Georgian incident there was more control over what correspondents sent after Argentinean authorization.

For example, on Thus, the military chartered the day after the invasion, the April 30th flight he sent with the pilot the photo- on April 3, a plane so that about 40 reporters could graphic material he had until then to deliver it to the portray the Argentinean occupation on the islands.

The camera rolls were kidnapped and the Air although reporters who came in the afternoon could Force revealed and revised the material; however, they only take positive photographs because, according to returned it to the agency after not finding any suspi- Wollmannthe prisoners were gone and descarfar cious.

For this reason, Wollmann did not hesitate to were no traces of the invasion, the amphibious tanks return to the country in the flight of April 3, the first were gone and the soldiers were with their faces was- after the occupation, with the material of the invasion.

The photographs by assistant technician Alfredo Arcuri settled down; they Rafael Wollmann illustrated the covers of almost all the were joined after by the communications technician media, being the only ones that existed. Their impact, Rodolfo Schroh Marc, When Juan Jose voices said that Margaret Thatcher had commanded Marc presented the safe passage to the military, the fleet after seeing his graphic documents.

In addition to receiving neither food nor lod- their planes: When he arrived at the place of the conflict, he logistical problems: But, accor- States as if they had been shot in the islands. Accor- ding to Marcat that time his media did not ding to the cameraman, an English soldier told him give much value to what happened there, since of the twenty years later that they had carried heavy tanks chronicles that he sent only 14 were published, into the area and that they were all stuck, as the Bri- something of which he was not aware until he retur- tish were probably confused with the dissemination of ned.

Therefore, and in relation that would arrive on April 20, recalls that there was not to the first two objectives of the investigation O1 and much activity at the beginning and that his job was to O2already in this phase prior to the Argentine occu- portray the soldiers doing some works.

They were free pation an initial control of the communications that to move and sometimes they were taken to certain pla- left the archipelago is observed, although in a rather ces that the military wanted them to film. However, the beginning of to remove the equipment until further notice.

Anyway, the war would stress the relations between military and that did not stop them from continuing to work, since correspondents, changing this situation. The mative value and made difficult to cover the war with first bombing occurred on May 1 and with it also came freedom of movement. Some, like Kasanzewthe first serious incident of the military with the press.

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They walked down the landing track, saw one who filtered the information. The next day to the agency, as well as the texts. If there were things they congratulated him for his work, rattenbcah in the after- he descarfar not want to be transmitted, he crossed out the noon they announced that he was being expelled from paragraph.

With television he worked in a similar way. However, finally, the governor changed his According to Kasanzewif the captain accom- mind because he assumed that responsibility had not panied them on the recording, he would tell them been his. After the bombings, hundreds of military men what they desfargar show, but when he did not go with with machines crafted fake craters with earth, so that them, he would check the images through the view- the British thought that they had damaged it and so finder, complementing the image with a headset, and did not continue to bombard it.

But the lack of coordi- telling them what to delete every night. For example, of a recording And he explains that the texts that were front. Kasanzew director of the agency was a man of trust of the Navy; collects in his book the different phases of censorship and secondly, because the Armed Forces could hardly through which his television material was passing: In the end, the reporters eluded the and, finally, in Buenos Aires the work relied on the censorship or played with the lack of control between Army Intelligence censors.

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From this incident there was an iron control of telling the Argentines the war, and that content was the press. The correspondents themselves requested the one that later, once broadcasted, was distributed guidelines so that they could work more freely and that by the foreign televisions, which made possible a grea- their material was not eliminated, and all they were ter control over its contents.

Rotondo rattenvach out that told was that they could not communicate placements he could show what was really happening, even if eescargar or data on regiments or numbers of soldiers. From that material was not seen in Argentina. He also acknowle- moment they did not have so many problems, accor- dges regretting the use given to his photographic mate- ding to Rotondo In general, reporters remember that transmission of information by precaution, but others with the low-ranking military they had no problem, ended up censoring absurd things, due to improvisa- since they, the reporters, were the ones who could buy tion and the absence of clear and established rules.

They also remem- The process followed by the photographs was diffe- ber that soldiers often rejoiced in the presence of the rent: The relationship between the military and Argentine correspondents television network. Instead, he had to travel many pla- foreign media paid up to a thousand dollars per reel, ces on foot, except for the last three days, when the war since there was no material from the Falklands.

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The invasion of the Falklands had put with a great lack of control and lack of clear orders, Argentina in the spotlight, so the Argentine military which generated confusion among the professionals had very clear guidelines of having no conflict with themselves. THE the rules and transfer or give information to journalists. After the war, during the military Argentina was created.

The Commission was a new historical and social sense to these Falklands composed of six generals, two of each of the three lands. The falseness in the information creates absurd Armed Forces. According to Rosendo the radio-communications. The relationship between the military and Argentine correspondents that it was exerted by both countries during and after that the Commission considers that it is necessary to the conflict.

It is of psychological action, he is responsible for: To exercise due because, despite not having an ideal organization and control over some social and journalistic media to equipment, it could have been better adapted to the avoid the dissemination of exaggerated news and other situation.

The Joint General Staff was the one who, once news that affected national security, by the nature of the conflict began, took responsibility in this matter, its information.

To control adequately the activity of British journalism in Argentina, which had, instead, without having experience and with a basic organi- ample facilities for the use of the media.

Thus, it was improvised and everything was tenbach,pp. In addition, there was a to investigate trade in information during the conflict lack of coordination among the responsible agencies.

It is also After the freedom that reporters in the Vietnam War criticized to have been too permissive with the treat- had, the Argentine government tried not to repeat the ment of information during the war, to accommodate mistakes made by the Americans, as authors such as triumphalist effects.

The report recognizes that there Pizarroso put it. Hence, the information cove- was a lack of adaptation to the new guidelines, which rage of the conflict was characterized by the absolute caused that the psychological action was outdated control of the information and by the scarce presence and negative, especially in the final phase of the war.

With regard to O1 — The conclusions also include a classification and to analyze the relationship between journalists and assessment of the psychological action understood as the military— we have observed in the results that the censorship and control of information during several objective work of the journalists was hampered by an phases. The management phase began once the islands iron control of all their communications.

One of the were occupied. The phases of intelligence and approach testimonies Marc, even speaks of the role of were not executed previously, by the secret imposed. We have seen to not having coordination in the use of the media, in a chronological way that the relationship between having produced a poor control, an affirmation that the military and the journalists was not always the agrees with the opinions of the correspondents inter- same and that it evolved according to the context, to viewed in this article.

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