Developmental response of the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella ( Zeller), to temperature was determined in laboratory trials in Turrialba, Costa Rica. ABSTRACT. The mahogany shoot borer Hypsipyla grandella Zeller is an important economic pest in all American tropical forests, because it prevents. The mahogany shoot borer Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) is one of the worst neotropical forest pests. Currently there is no control method that.

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Development of Hypsipyla grandella Zeller Lepidoptera: Pyralidae in response to constant temperatures.

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Desenvolvimento de Hypsipyla grandella Zeller Lepidoptera: Pyralidae em diferentes temperaturas constantes. Developmental response of the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella Zellerto temperature was determined in laboratory trials in Turrialba, Costa Rica.

Two hundred fresh eggs less than 24h old were placed individually inside glass flasks, and exposed to seven constant temperatures 10, After hatch, larvae were fed tender foliage of Spanish cedar Cedrela odorata and were inspected every 24h to determine larval and pupal duration, and adult emergence, at each temperature. Relationships between these variables and temperature were analyzed by means of ANOVA, regression and correlation procedures.

Temperature greatly influenced development of H. Estimation of a common lower thermal threshold for all immature stages 8. Meliaceae, development rate, thermal threshold, thermal constant, Costa Rica. Two congeneric shootborer species, Hypsipyla grandella Zeller and H. The former is distributed throughout the neotropics, whereas H. Both of them bore into terminal shoots of young host plants, breaking the apical dominance, which causes forking of the stem and excessive production of lateral branches.

In the case of H. Even though a great deal of research aimed at managing H. For instance, available information on the H. From biological and ecological standpoints, this lack of reliable information prevents rigorous comparisons of development among H. Furthermore, it precludes using degree-day approaches WigglesworthPruess to predict field population peaks of this pest, in order to improve timing for application of management tactics. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the response of H.

Response to temperature was assessed by exposing H.

Hypsipyla grandella – Wikipedia

For determining development time, a cohort of fresh eggs less than 24h old was placed individually inside 30 ml glass flasks containing a disk of C. Flasks were turned upside down and each egg was placed above the disk. A piece of paper towel was fastened with the lid and was moistened periodically. Eggs were inspected every 24h, in order to determine hatching rates and development time at each constant grandslla. Once eggs hatched, each first-instar larva was kept in the respective flask, where it was fed with tender foliage, until reaching instar III.


Afterwards, each larva was transferred to a flask containing about 5 ml of artificial diet Vargas et al. Larvae were inspected every 24h, in order to determine instar duration by observing morphological changes size and larval signs, such as their old head capsule and exuviaeat each constant temperature. Each pupa was weighed using an analytical scale and sexed Hidalgo-Salvatierra to determine sex ratio.

The pupa was subsequently transferred to a dry, 30ml plastic flask, where it was inspected daily until adult emergence. Dates for adult emergence were recorded, and experiments were carried out to study adult longevity and oviposition patterns. However, these experiments failed, because pairs of H. In order to determine mating success, females were dissected to count the number of spermatophores in their bursa copulatrix, as each one of them represent a successful mating Lara Also, regression and correlation analyses were performed to examine the relationships between temperature and the rates of development of immature stages and adult emergence.

The regression lines between development rate and temperature were extended to obtain the lower thermal threshold LTTwhich corresponds to the grxndella with the abscissa DavidsonWigglesworth The LTT was then used to calculate the thermal constant, granedlla represents the physiological time required to complete development at each temperature. K thermal constanty development timet temperature and a LTT Wigglesworth Temperature greatly influenced granvella development time of immature stages egg, larva and pupa of H.

Development time curves for eggs, larvae and pupa were best fitted by the potential model Fig.

Development rate was highest for eggs 1. These values allowed calculation of the lower thermal threshold for each stage: Thermal constants were estimated for each temperature Table 3and a general constant of degree-days was calculated.

Supernumerary instars have been reported for H. Mean development time for each larval instar tended to decrease as temperature increased. Pupal Weight hyosipyla Sex Ratio. This may be explained by the higher levels of food storage normally present in the fat body tissue of the female Chapman There was a sex ratio bias to females at the two extreme temperatures, whereas at the intermediate hylsipyla the proportion of both sexes was nearly equal Table 5.

mahogany shoot borer – Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller)

Temperature clearly influenced mortality during development Fig. At the highest temperature, survivorship was nil through the larval stages. This can be explained because high temperatures constrain insect development either by protein denaturing or because of accumulation of toxic wastes resulting from metabolic imbalances Chapman Pupal mortality was generally high. Thus, the most vulnerable H.

Cumulative emergence at these temperatures was best described by logarithmic curves with decreasing increments over time Fig. These trends also held for each sex.


This fact coincided with findings from previous authors Larawho reported that during copulation the male inserts a single spermatophore. Failure to mate at most temperatures in our experiments could be due to absence of air currents inside the environmental chamber.

For instance, mating success of H. The mechanism by which wind promotes mating is unclear, but may involve release or dispersal of the female’s sex pheromone. Fasoranti showed that flight strongly influences mating and oviposition in H. The absence of air circulation in the granfella may limit flight behavior by H. The constant-temperature regimes in our study did not mimic the diurnal variation occurring in H. Nevertheless, the information gathered at constant temperatures in environmental chambers allowed us to hypsiphla a common lower thermal grzndella for all H.

Using these values through the degree-day method WigglesworthPruessUniversity of CaliforniaTaveras et al. Aside from bioinsecticides, such as derivatives of neem Azadirachta indicaMeliaceae Mancebo et al. Research on both of these approaches is underway in Costa Rica. To Sanford Eigenbrode University of Grandeloa for his valuable comments on a previous draft.

Academic Press, New York, p. Cambridge University Press, p. On the relationship between temperature and rate of development of insects at constant temperatures. Influence of flight hypsipyls the mating behavior of the mahogany shootborer Hypsipyla grandella Zeller Lepidoptera: Growth of larvae reared on a synthetic diet, p.

Pyralidae en condiciones de laboratorio. University of Washington, Seattle, 77p. Antifeedant activity of Quassia amara Simaroubaceae extracts on Hypsipyla grandella Lepidoptera: Biological activity of two neem Azadirachta indica A.

Biological activity of Ruta chalepensis Rutaceae and Sechium pittieri Cucurbitaceae extracts on Hypsipyla grandella Lepidoptera: The silviculture of mahogany. Wallingford, United Kingdom, p.

Diel activity pattern and effects of wind on the mating success of cedar tip moth, Hypsipyla robusta Moore Lepidoptera: The mahogany shoot borer: Day-degree methods for pest management.

Observaciones sobre el ciclo de vida de Hypsipyla grandella Zeller en Barinitas, Venezuela. Statistics, Version 5 ed. Economic entomology in tropical forest plantations: Population trends and damage patterns of Hypsipyla grandella Lepidoptera: Pyralidae in a mahogany stand, in Turrialba, Costa Rica. The principles of insect physiology, 7 ed. All the contents of this journal, except grzndella otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Materials and Methods Study Site. Results and Discussion Development Time. Literature Cited Becker, V. How to cite this article.

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