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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Hyperspace was originally published in hardcover by Oxford University Press in Reprinted by permission of Alfred A. Originally appeared in The New Yorker.

Excerpt from “Fire and Ice. Copyright by Robert Frost. Reprinted by permission of Henry Holt and Company, Micbio. Includes bibliographical references and index. March 10 This book is dedicated to my parents Preface Scientific revolutions, almost by definition, defy common sense. If all our common-sense notions about the universe were correct, then science would have solved the secrets of the universe thousands of years ago.

The purpose of science is to peel back the layer of the appear- ance of objects to reveal their underlying nature. In fact, if appearance and essence were the same thing, there would hylerspace no need for science.

Perhaps the most deeply entrenched common-sense notion about our world is that it is three dimensional. It goes without saying that length, width, and breadth suffice to describe all objects in our visible universe. Experiments with babies and animals have shown that we are born with an innate sense that our world is three dimensional.

If we include time as another dimension, then four dimensions are sufficient to record all hypsrspace in the universe. No matter where our instruments have probed, from deep within the atom to the farthest reaches of the galactic cluster, we have only found evidence of these four dimensions.

To claim otherwise publicly, that other dimensions might exist or that our universe may coexist with others, is to invite miichio scorn. Yet this deeply ingrained prejudice about our world, first speculated on by ancient Greek philosophers 2 millennia ago, is about to hyperspade to the progress of science. This book is about a scientific revolution created by the theory of hyper- space,’ which states that dimensions exist beyond the commonly accepted four of space and time.

There is a growing acknowledgment among physicists worldwide, including several Nobel laureates, kak the universe may actually exist in higher-dimensional space. If this theory is proved correct, it will create a muchio conceptual and philosophical revolu- tion in our understanding of the universe.

Scientifically, the hyperspace theory goes by the names of Kaluza-Klein theory and supergravity. But Preface viii its most advanced formulation is called superstring theory, which even predicts the precise number of dimensions: The usual three dimen- sions of space length, width, and breadth and one of time are now extended by six more spatial dimensions.

We caution that the theory of hyperspace has not yet been experi- mentally confirmed and would, in fact, be exceedingly difficult to prove in the laboratory. However, the theory has already swept across the major physics research laboratories of the world and has irrevocably altered hyperslace scientific landscape of modern physics, generating a staggering num- ber of research papers in the scientific literature over 5, by one count.

However, almost nothing has been written for the lay audience to explain the fascinating properties of higher-dimensional space.

Therefore, the general public is only dimly aware, if at all, of this revo- lution. In fact, the glib references to other dimensions and parallel uni- verses in the popular culture are often misleading. This is regrettable because the theory’s importance lies in its power to unify all known physical phenomena in an astonishingly simple framework.

This book makes available, for hypefspace first time, a scientifically authoritative but acces- mchio account of the current fascinating research on hyperspace. To explain why the hyperspace theory has generated so much excite- ment within the world of theoretical physics.

I have developed four fun- damental themes that run through this book like a thread. These four themes divide the book into four parts. In Part I, I develop the early history of hyperspace, jichio the theme that the laws of nature become simpler and more elegant when expressed in higher dimensions. To understand how adding higher dimensions can simplify physical problems, consider the following example: To the ancient Egyptians, the weather was a complete mystery.


What caused the seasons? Why did it get warmer as they traveled south? Why did the winds generally hhyperspace in one direction? The weather was impossible to explain from the limited vantage point of the ancient Egyptians, to whom the earth appeared flat, like a two-dimensional plane. But now imagine sending the Egyptians in a rocket into outer space, where they can see the earth as simple and whole in its orbit around the sun.

Suddenly, the answers to these ques- tions become obvious. From outer space, michiio is clear that the earth’s axis is tilted about 23 degrees from the vertical the ‘vertical” being the perpendicular to the plane of the earth’s orbit around the michhio.

Because of this tilt, the kak ern hemisphere receives much less sunlight during one part of its orbit than during another part. Hence we have winter and summer.

And since Preface IX the equator receives more sunlight then the northern or southern polar regions, it becomes warmer as we approach the equator. Similarly, since the earth spins counterclockwise to someone sitting on the north pole, the cold, polar air swerves as it moves south toward the equator.

The motion of hot and cold masses of air, set in motion by the earth’s spin, thus helps to explain why the winds generally blow in one direction, depending on where you are on the earth. In summary, the rather obscure laws of the weather are easy to under- stand once we view the earth from space. Thus the solution to the prob- lem is to go up into space, into the third dimension. Facts that were impos- sible to understand in a flat world suddenly become obvious when viewing a three-dimensional earth.

Similarly, micio laws of gravity and light seem totally dissimilar. They obey different physical assumptions and different mathematics. Attempts to splice these two jaku have always failed. However, if we add one more dimension, a fifth dimension, to the previous four dimen- sions of space and time, then the equations governing light and gravity appear to merge together like two pieces of ajigsaw puzzle.

Hyperspace Quotes by Michio Kaku

Light, in fact, can be explained as vibrations in the fifth dimension. In this way, we see that the laws of light and gravity become simpler in five dimen- sions. Consequently, many physicists are now convinced that a conventional four-dimensional theory is “too small” to describe adequately the forces that describe our universe. In a four-dimensional theory, physicists have to squeeze together the forces of nature in a clumsy, unnatural fashion.

Furthermore, this hybrid theory is incorrect. When expressed in dimen- sions beyond four, however, we have “enough room” to explain the fundamental forces in an elegant, self-contained fashion.

Thus the hyperspace theory may be the crowning achieve- ment of 2 millennia of scientific investigation: It may give us the Holy Grail of physics, the “the- ory of everything” that eluded Einstein for so many decades. For the past half-century, scientists hypsrspace been puzzled as to why the basic forces that hold together the cosmos — gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces — differ so greatly.

Attempts by the greatest minds of the twentieth century to provide a unifying picture of all the known forces have failed. However, the hyperspace theory allows the possibility of explaining the four forces of miichio as well as the seemingly random collection of subatomic particles in a truly elegant X Preface fashion.

In the hyperspace theory, “matter” can be also viewed as the vibrations that ripple through the fabric of space hyperspacs time. Thus follows the fascinating possibility that everything we see nyperspace us, from the trees and mountains to the stars themselves, are nothing but vibrations in hyperspace.

If this is true, then this gives us an elegant, simple, and geometric means of providing a coherent and compelling description of the entire universe. In Part III, we explore the possibility that, under extreme circum- stances, space may be stretched until it rips or tears.

In other words, hyperspace may provide a means to tunnel through space and time. Although we stress that this is still highly speculative, physicists are seri- ously analyzing the properties of “wormholes,” of tunnels that link dis- tant parts of space and time. Physicists at the California Institute of Tech- nology, for example, have seriously proposed the possibility of building a time machine, consisting of a wormhole that connects the past with the future.


Time machines have now left the realm of speculation and fantasy and have become legitimate fields of scientific research. Cosmologists have even proposed the startling possibility that our universe is just one among an infinite number of parallel universes. These universes might be compared to a vast collection of soap bubbles suspended in air.

Normally, contact between these bubble universes is impossible, but, by analyzing Einstein’s equations, cosmologists have shown that there might exist a web of wormholes, or tubes, that connect these parallel universes. On each bubble, we can define our own dis- tinctive space and time, which have meaning only on its surface; outside these bubbles, space and time have no meaning.

Although many consequences of this discussion are purely theoreti- cal, hyperspace travel may eventually provide the most practical appli- cation of all: Scientists universally hyperapace that the universe must even- tually die, and with it hyperspaec life that has evolved over billions of years.

For example, according to the prevailing theory, called the Big Bang, a cos- mic explosion 15 to 20 billion years ago set the universe expanding, hurling stars and galaxies away from us at great velocities. However, if the universe one day stops expanding and begins to contract, it will eventually collapse into a fiery cataclysm called the Big Crunch, in which all intelligent life will be vaporized by fantastic heat.

Nevertheless, some physicists have speculated that the hyperspace theory may provide the one and only hope of a refuge for intelligent life. In the last seconds of the death of our universe, intelligent life may escape the collapse by fleeing into hyperspace. If the theory michil proved correct, then when will we be able to harness the power of the hyperspace theory? This is not just an academic question, because in the past, the harnessing ofjust one of the four fundamental forces irrevo- cably changed the course ofhuman history, lifting us from the ignorance and squalor of ancient, preindustrial societies to modern civilization.

In some sense, even the vast sweep of human history can be viewed in a new light, in terms of the progressive mastery of each of the four forces. The history of civilization has undergone a profound change as each of these forces was discovered and mastered. For example, micyio Isaac Newton wrote down the classical laws of gravity, he developed the theory of mechanics, which gave us the laws governing machines.

Hyperspace Quotes

This, in turn, greatly accelerated the Industrial Rev- olution, which unleashed political forces that eventually overthrew the feudal dynasties ofEurope.

In the mids, whenJames Clerk Maxwell wrote down the fundamental laws of the electromagnetic force, he ush- ered in the Electric Age, which gave us the dynamo, radio, television, radar, household appliances, the telephone, microwaves, consumer elec- tronics, the electronic computer, lasers, hpyerspace many other electronic mar- vels. Without the understanding and utilization of the electromagnetic force, civilization would have stagnated, frozen in a time before the dis- covery of the light bulb and kak electric motor.

In the mids, when the nuclear force was harnessed, the world was again turned upside down with the development of the atomic and hydrogen bombs, the most destructive weapons on the planet. Because we are not on kichio verge of a unified understanding of all the cosmic forces governing the uni- verse, one might expect that any civilization that masters the hyperspace theory will become mchio of the universe.

Since the hyperspace theory is a well-defined body of mathematical equations, we can calculate the precise energy necessary to twist space and time into a pretzel or to create wormholes linking distant parts of our universe. Unfortunately, the results are disappointing.

The energy required far exceeds anything that our planet can muster.

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