Transcript of HERMANN EBBINGHAUS. Barmen – – “Dozent” de la universidad de Berlin – Trabajo sobre la memoria. Hermann Ebbinghaus. AM Biografía. -Sí se reformula -Ebbinghaus rechaza estructuralismo de Wundt por: Extrema dependecia. Bibliografía
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He qualified as a doctor of medicine in at the University of Vienna. In Freud left Austria to escape the Nazis. He died in exile in the United Kingdom in In creating psychoanalysis, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transferenceestablishing its central role in the analytic process.
Freud’s redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory. On this basis Freud elaborated his theory of the unconscious and went on to develop a model of psychic structure comprising id, ego and super-ego.
Though in overall decline as a diagnostic and clinical practice, psychoanalysis remains influential within psychologypsychiatryand psychotherapyand across the humanities. It thus continues to generate extensive and highly contested debate with regard to its therapeutic efficacy, its scientific status, and whether it advances or is detrimental to the feminist cause. In the words of W.
His father, Jakob Freud —a wool merchant, had two sons, Emanuel — and Philipp —by his first marriage. Jakob’s family were Hasidic Jewsand although Jakob himself had moved away from the tradition, he came to be known for his Torah study. Inthe Freud family left Freiberg. Freud’s half brothers emigrated to ManchesterEngland, parting him from the “inseparable” playmate of his early childhood, Emanuel’s son, John.
He proved to be an outstanding pupil and graduated from the Matura in with honors. Freud entered the University of Vienna at age His research work on the biology of nervous tissue proved seminal for the subsequent discovery of the neuron in the s.
The lengthy downtimes enabled him to complete a commission to translate four essays from John Stuart Mill ‘s collected works. InFreud began his medical career at the Vienna General Hospital. His research work in cerebral anatomy led to the publication of an influential paper on the palliative effects of cocaine in and his work on aphasia would form the basis of his first book On the Aphasias: Over a three-year period, Freud worked in various departments of the hospital.
His time spent in Theodor Meynert ‘s psychiatric clinic and as a locum in a local asylum led to an increased interest in clinical work. His substantial body of published research led to his appointment as a university lecturer or docent in neuropathology ina non-salaried post but one which entitled him to give lectures at the University of Vienna.
InFreud resigned his hospital post and entered private practice specializing in “nervous disorders”. The same year he married Martha Bernaysthe granddaughter of Isaac Bernaysa chief rabbi in Hamburg.
They had six children: From until they left Vienna inFreud and his family lived in an apartment at Berggasse 19near Innere Stadta historical district of Vienna. The close relationship she formed with Freud led to rumours, started by Carl Jungof an affair.
The discovery of a Swiss hotel log of 13 Augustsigned by Freud whilst travelling with his sister-in-law, has been presented as evidence of the affair. Freud began smoking tobacco at age 24; initially a cigarette smoker, he became a cigar smoker.
He believed that smoking enhanced his capacity to work and that he could exercise self-control in moderating it. Despite health warnings from colleague Wilhelm Fliesshe remained a smoker, eventually suffering a buccal cancer.
Freud had greatly admired his philosophy tutor, Brentano, who was known for his biotrafia of perception and introspection.
Carl Jung – Wikipedia
Brentano discussed the possible existence of the unconscious mind in his Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint Although Brentano denied its existence, his discussion of the unconscious probably helped introduce Freud to the concept.
Though Freud was reluctant to associate his psychoanalytic insights with prior philosophical theories, attention has been drawn to analogies between his work and that of both Schopenhauer  and Nietzscheboth of whom he claimed not to have read until late in life. One historian concluded, based on Freud’s correspondence with his adolescent friend Eduard Silberstein, that Freud read Nietzsche’s The Birth of Tragedy and the first two of the Untimely Meditations when he was seventeen.
Freud read William Shakespeare in English throughout his life, and it has been suggested that his understanding of human psychology may have been partially derived from Shakespeare’s plays. Freud’s Jewish origins and his allegiance to his secular Jewish identity were of significant influence in the formation of his intellectual and moral outlook, especially with respect to his intellectual non-conformism, as he was the first to point out in his Autobiographical Study.
In OctoberFreud went to Paris on a fellowship to study with Jean-Martin Charcota renowned neurologist who was conducting scientific research into hypnosis. He was later to recall the experience of this stay as catalytic in turning him toward the practice of medical psychopathology and away from a less financially promising career in neurology research.
Once he had set up in private practice inFreud began using hypnosis in his clinical work. He adopted the approach of his friend and collaborator, Josef Breuerin a use of hypnosis which was different from the French methods he had studied in that it did not use suggestion.
The treatment of one particular patient of Breuer’s proved to be transformative for Freud’s clinical practice. Described as Anna O. In the course of talking in this way these symptoms became reduced in severity as she retrieved memories of traumatic incidents associated with their onset. The uneven results of Freud’s early clinical work eventually led him to abandon hypnosis, having reached the conclusion that more consistent and effective symptom relief could be achieved by encouraging patients to talk freely, without censorship or inhibition, about whatever ideas or memories occurred to them.
In conjunction with this procedure, which he called ” free association “, Freud found that patients’ dreams could be fruitfully analyzed to reveal the complex structuring of unconscious material and to demonstrate the psychic action of repression which, he had concluded, underlay symptom formation.
By he was using the term ” psychoanalysis ” to refer to his new clinical method and the theories on which it was based. Freud’s development of these new theories took place during a period in which he experienced heart irregularities, disturbing dreams and periods of depression, a “neurasthenia” which he linked to the death of his father in  and which prompted a “self-analysis” of his own dreams and memories of childhood.
His explorations of his feelings of hostility to his father and rivalrous jealousy over his mother’s affections led him to fundamentally revise his theory of the origin of the neuroses. On the basis of his early clinical work, Freud had postulated that unconscious memories of sexual molestation in early childhood were a necessary precondition for the psychoneuroses hysteria and obsessional neurosisa formulation now known as Freud’s seduction theory.
This transition from the theory of infantile sexual trauma as a general explanation of how all neuroses originate to one that presupposes an autonomous infantile sexuality provided the basis for Freud’s subsequent formulation of the theory of the Oedipus complex. Freud described the evolution of his clinical method and set out his theory of the psychogenetic origins of hysteria, demonstrated in a number of case histories, in Studies on Hysteria published in co-authored with Josef Breuer.
In he published The Interpretation of Dreams in which, following a critical review of existing theory, Freud gives detailed interpretations of his own and his patients’ dreams in terms of wish-fulfillments made subject to the repression and censorship of the “dream work”.
He then sets out the theoretical model of mental structure the unconscious, pre-conscious and conscious on which this account is based. An abridged version, On Dreamswas published in In works which would win him a more general readership, Freud applied his theories outside the clinical setting in The Psychopathology of Everyday Life and Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious During this formative period of his work, Freud valued and came to rely on the intellectual and emotional support of his friend Wilhelm Fliessa Berlin based ear, nose and throat specialist whom he had first met Both men saw themselves as isolated from the prevailing clinical and theoretical mainstream because of their ambitions to develop radical new theories of sexuality.
Fliess developed highly eccentric theories of human biorhythms and a nasogenital connection which are today considered pseudoscientific. He shared Freud’s views on the importance of certain aspects of sexuality — masturbation, coitus interruptusand the use of condoms — in the etiology of what were then called the “actual neuroses,” primarily neurasthenia and certain physically manifested anxiety symptoms.
His first attempt at a systematic theory of the mind, his Project for a Scientific Psychology was developed as a metapsychology with Fliess as interlocutor.
Freud had Fliess repeatedly operate on his nose and sinuses to treat “nasal reflex neurosis”,  and subsequently referred his patient Emma Eckstein to him. According to Freud her history of symptoms included severe leg pains with consequent restricted mobility, biograia stomach and menstrual pains. These pains were, according to Fliess’s theories, caused by habitual masturbation which, as the tissue of the nose and genitalia were linked, was curable by removal of part niografia the middle turbinate.
At first, though aware of Fliess’s culpability — Freud fled from the remedial surgery in horror — he could only bring himself to biobrafia intimate in his correspondence to Fliess the nature of his disastrous role and in subsequent letters maintained a tactful silence on the matter or else returned to the face-saving topic of Eckstein’s hysteria.
Freud ultimately, in light of Eckstein’s history of adolescent self-cutting and irregular nasal and menstrual bleeding, concluded that Fliess was “completely without blame”, as Eckstein’s post-operative hemorrhages were hysterical “wish-bleedings” linked to “an old wish to be loved in her illness” and triggered as a means of “rearousing ebbinghaus affection”.
Eckstein nonetheless continued her analysis with Freud.
She was restored to full mobility and went on to practice psychoanalysis herself. Freud, who had called Fliess “the Kepler of biology”, later concluded that a combination of a homoerotic attachment and the residue of his “specifically Jewish mysticism” lay behind his loyalty to his Jewish friend and his consequent over-estimation of both his theoretical and clinical work. Their friendship came to an acrimonious end with Fliess angry at Freud’s unwillingness to endorse his general theory of sexual periodicity and accusing him of collusion in the plagiarism of his work.
After Fliess failed to respond to Freud’s offer of collaboration over publication of his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality intheir relationship came to an end. InFreud at last realised his long-standing ambition to be made a university professor. The title “professor extraordinarius”  was important to Freud for the recognition and prestige it conferred, there being no salary or teaching duties attached to the post he would be granted the enhanced status of “professor ordinarius” in With his prestige thus enhanced, Freud continued with the regular series of lectures on his work which, since the mids as a docent of Vienna University, he had been delivering to small audiences every Saturday evening at the lecture hall of the university’s psychiatric clinic.
From the autumn ofa number of Viennese physicians who had expressed interest in Freud’s work were invited to meet at his apartment every Wednesday afternoon to discuss issues relating to psychology and neuropathology. Freud founded this discussion group at the suggestion of the physician Wilhelm Stekel.
His conversion to psychoanalysis is variously attributed to his successful treatment by Freud for a sexual problem or as a result of his reading The Interpretation of Dreamsto which he subsequently gave a positive review in the Viennese daily newspaper Neues Wiener Tagblatt.
Hermann Ebbinghaus by on Prezi
The other three original members whom Freud invited to attend, Alfred AdlerMax Kahane, and Rudolf Reitler, were also physicians  and all five were Jewish by birth. Kahane had attended the same secondary school and both he and Reitler went to university with Freud.
They had kept abreast of Freud’s developing ideas through their attendance at his Saturday evening lectures. In it, he provided an outline of Freud’s psychoanalytic method. Adler, regarded as the most formidable intellect among the early Freud circle, was a socialist who in had written a health manual for the tailoring trade. He was particularly interested in the potential social impact of psychiatry. Max Grafa Viennese musicologist and father of ” Little Hans “, who had first encountered Freud in and joined the Wednesday group soon after its initial inception,  described the ritual and atmosphere of the early meetings of the society:.
The gatherings followed a definite ritual. First one of the members would present a paper. Then, black coffee and cakes were served; cigar and cigarettes were on the table and were consumed in great quantities. After a social quarter of an hour, the discussion would begin. The last and decisive word was always spoken by Freud himself. There was the atmosphere of the foundation of a religion in that room.
Freud himself was its new prophet who made the heretofore prevailing methods of psychological investigation appear superficial.
Georg Elias Müller
Bythe group had grown to sixteen members, including Otto Rankwho was employed as the group’s paid secretary. Inreflecting its growing institutional status, the Wednesday group was renamed the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. Inthe first women members were admitted to the Society. Both women would go on to make important contributions to the work of the Russian Psychoanalytic Society founded in Freud’s early followers met together formally for the first time at the Hotel Bristol, Salzburg on 27 April This meeting, which was retrospectively deemed to be the first International Psychoanalytic Congress,  was convened at the suggestion of Ernest Jonesthen a London-based neurologist who had discovered Freud’s writings and begun applying psychoanalytic methods in his clinical work.
There were, as Jones records, “forty-two present, half of whom were or became practicing analysts.