The mechanism by which Helminthosporium maydis race T toxin inhibits respiration dependent on NAD+-linked substrates in T cytoplasm corn mitochondria. Abstract. Host-specific toxins produced by Helminthosporium maydis, race T, are measured quantitatively by a chemical assay procedure involving reaction of. Systematic position. Class Ascomycota, subclass Dothideomycetidae, order Pleosporales, family Pleomassariaceae, genus Helminthosporium.
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Diseases Helminthosporium maydis Nisik.
Class Ascomycota, subclass Dothideomycetidae, order Pleosporales, family Pleomassariaceae, genus Helminthosporium. It is a facultative parasite. The disease affects leaves, leaf mmaydis, ear, and maize grains. The lesions on leaves and ears are the main symptoms of the disease.
On leaves of adult plants the grayish-red or stramineous long lesions with dark brown center appear along leaf veins, being spindle-shaped or elliptical.
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The length of the lesions is 40 mm, and their width is about 6 mm. The lesions can coalesce, causing death of leaves.
On sheaths the lesions are brown with purple border. The length of the lesions is 50 mm. On ears the lesions are spindle-shaped, brown with dark border. The germ part of seeds becomes dark, and the seeds lose germinating ability. Besides maize the helminthoosporium affects sorghum.
Helminthosporium maydis Race T Toxin Induces Leakage of NAD+ from T Cytoplasm Corn Mitochondria
Infected seeds and corn residues are sources of the infection. Conidia are curved, elliptical, from light-olive to brown.
The size is x 8. Wind spreads the spores long distance. The fungus has the teleomorph Cochliobolus heterostrophus Drechsler Drechsler. It produces a specific T-toxin causing the same symptoms of disease as those caused by conidia.
A highly virulent strain called Race T appeared on maize hybrids with Texas male sterile cytoplasm. The disease development was related to the growing of maize with T-cytoplasm on large areas. Since the use of cultivars with T male sterile mayfis has been forbidden in selection.
Presently the cultivars with M and C types of sterility are used. The fungus develops at a wide range of temperatures, from 10 to Helminyhosporium temperature for disease development is The disease only develops in zones with high humidity where annual sum of atmospheric precipitation is mm and more.
At high temperatures and humidity the sowings can perish over a period of days. To protect the maize from the disease the following measures are recommended: Mayydis Russian Aleksandrov I.
Helminthosoprium problem of Southern Corn Leaf Blight and methods of its decision. Problems of plant quarantine. Southern Corn Leaf Blight. Kukuruza i sorgo, 3: In Russian Gopalo N.
Damage of helminthosporium leaf lesions on maize, their epiphytotiology and protection of sowing.
AgroAtlas – Diseases – Helminthosporium maydis Nisik. & Miyake – Southern Corn Leaf Blight
In Russian Kiryuchina R. Southern Corn Leaf Blight – dangerous disease of maize. In Russian Sotchenko V. More attention to Southern Helmintyosporium Leaf Blight. Kukuruza i sorgo, 5: