Results 1 – 15 of 15 EL FEUDALISMO by Ganshof. F. L. and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at Não Será exagero afirmar que o feudalismo é uma das realidades sociopolíticas que mais profundamente vincaram o rosto da Europa e que mais influência. BELEJ-MENDEZ – Lotos, Papiros y Esfinges. La Influencia Egipcianizante en La Arquitectura Funeraria Del Cementerio de La Recoleta -Claroscuro
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Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the feudalimso of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from feudslismo Latin word feodum or feudum fief then in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in feudaliso Middle Ages.
A broader definition of feudalism, as described by Marc Blochincludes not only the obligations of the warrior nobility but also those of all three estates of the realm: Since the publication of Feudallsmo A. Brown ‘s “The Tyranny of a Construct” and Susan Reynolds ‘s Fiefs and Vassalsthere has been ongoing inconclusive discussion among medieval historians as to whether feudalism is a useful construct for understanding medieval society.
There is no commonly accepted modern definition of feudalism, at least among scholars. A broader definition, as described in Marc Bloch ‘s Feudal Society includes not only the obligations of the warrior nobility but those of all three estates of the realm: Brown ‘s “The Tyranny of a Construct”  and Susan Reynolds ‘s Fiefs and Vassals there has been ongoing inconclusive discussion among medieval historians as to whether feudalism is a useful construct for understanding medieval society.
The term feudalism has also been applied—often inappropriately or pejoratively—to non-Western societies where institutions and attitudes similar to those of medieval Europe are perceived to prevail. In the 18th century, Adam Smithseeking to describe economic systems, effectively coined the forms “feudal government” and “feudal system” in his book Wealth of Nations The term “feudal” or “feodal” is derived from the medieval Latin word feodum.
The etymology of feodum is complex with multiple theories, some suggesting a Germanic origin the most widely held view and others suggesting an Arabic origin. Initially in medieval Latin European documents, a land grant in exchange for service was called a beneficium Latin.
The most widely held theory was proposed by Johan Hendrik Caspar Kern in  being supported by, amongst others, William Stubbs   and Marc Bloch. This was known as feosa term that took on the general meaning of paying for something in lieu of money.
This meaning was then applied to land itself, in which land was used to pay for fealty, such as to a vassal. Thus the old word feos meaning feuxalismo property changed little by little to feus meaning the exact opposite: Another theory was put forward by Archibald R. The first use of these terms is in Languedocone of the least Germanic areas of Europe and bordering Muslim Spain.
Further, the earliest use of feuum as a replacement for beneficium can be dated tothe same year a Muslim base at Fraxinetum La Garde-Freinet in Provence was established.
Samarrai, ganshhof, also advises to handle this theory with care, as Medieval and Early Modern Muslim scribes often used etymologically “fanciful roots” in order to claim the most outlandish things to be of Arabian or Muslim origin.
Feudalism, in its various forms, usually emerged as a result of the decentralization of an empire: Mounted soldiers began to secure a system of hereditary rule feudlismo their allocated land and their power over the territory came to encompass the social, political, judicial, and economic spheres.
These acquired powers significantly diminished unitary power in these empires. Only when the infrastructure existed to maintain unitary power—as with feuealismo European monarchies—did feudalism begin to yield to this new power structure and eventually disappear.
A lord was in broad terms a noble who feuralismo land, a vassal was a person who was granted possession of the land by the lord, and the land was known as a fief.
Que é o Feudalismo?
In exchange for the use of the fief and protection by the lord, ganshfo vassal would provide some sort of service to the lord. There were many varieties of feudal land tenureconsisting of military and non-military service. The obligations and corresponding rights between lord and vassal concerning the fief form the basis of the feudal relationship. Before a lord could grant land a fief to someone, he had to make that person a vassal.
This was done at a formal and symbolic ceremony called a commendation ceremonywhich was composed of the two-part act of homage and oath of fealty. During homage, the lord and vassal entered into a contract in which the vassal promised to fight for the lord at his command, whilst the lord agreed to protect the vassal from external forces. Fealty comes from the Latin gnshof and denotes the fidelity owed by a vassal to his feudal lord. Such an oath follows homage.
Once the commendation ceremony was complete, the lord and vassal were in a feudal relationship with agreed obligations to one another. The vassal’s principal obligation to the lord was to “aid”, or military service. Using whatever equipment the vassal could obtain by virtue of the revenues from the fief, the vassal was responsible to answer calls to military service on behalf of the lord. This security of military help was the primary reason the lord entered into the feudal relationship.
In addition, the vassal could have other obligations to his lord, such as attendance at his court, whether manorial, baronial, both termed court baronor at the king’s court. It could also involve the vassal providing “counsel”, so that if the lord faced feudalissmo major decision he would summon all his vassals and hold a council.
At the level of the manor this might be a fairly mundane matter of agricultural policy, but also included sentencing by the lord for criminal offences, including capital punishment in some cases.
Concerning the king’s feudal court, fehdalismo deliberation could include the question of declaring war. These are examples; depending on the period of time and location in Europe, feudal customs and practices varied; see examples of feudalism.
In its origin, the feudal grant of land had been seen in terms of a personal bond between lord and vassal, but with feudalimso and the transformation of fiefs into hereditary holdings, the nature of the system came to be seen as a form of “politics of land” an expression used by the historian Marc Bloch.
The 11th century in France saw what has been called by historians a “feudal revolution” or “mutation” and a “fragmentation of powers” Bloch that was unlike the development of feudalism in England or Italy or Germany in the same period or later: Power in this period became more personal.
This “fragmentation of powers” was not, however, systematic throughout France, and in certain counties such as Flanders, Normandy, Anjou, Toulousecounts were able to maintain control of their lands into the 12th century or later. In response to this, the idea of a ” liege lord ” was developed where the obligations to one lord are regarded as superior in the 12th century. Feudslismo effectively ended by about Vestiges of the Feudal system hung on in France until the French Revolution, and the system lingered on in parts of Central and Eastern Europe as late as the s.
Russia finally abolished serfdom in Even when the original feudal relationships had disappeared, there were many institutional remnants of feudalism left in place. Historian Georges Lefebvre ganshoof how at an early stage of the French Revolutionon just one night of August 4,France abolished the long-lasting remnants of the feudal order. It announced, “The National Assembly abolishes the feudal system entirely.
Without debate the Assembly enthusiastically adopted equality of taxation and redemption of all manorial rights except for those involving personal servitude — which were to be abolished without indemnification. Other proposals followed with the same success: Ganshlf of provinces and towns gansuof offered as a last sacrifice. Originally the peasants were supposed to geudalismo for the release of seigneurial dues; these dues affected more than a fourth of the farmland in France and provided most of the income of the gansuof landowners.
Thus the peasants got their land free, feudalosmo also no longer paid the tithe to the church. The phrase “feudal society” as defined by Marc Bloch  offers a wider definition than Ganshof’s and includes within the feudal structure not only the warrior aristocracy bound by vassalage, but also the peasantry bound by manorialism, and the estates of the Church.
Thus the feudal order embraces society from top to feudalimo, though the “powerful and well-differentiated social group of the urban classes” came to occupy a distinct position to some extent outside the classical feudal hierarchy.
The idea of feudalism was unknown and the system it describes was not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Medieval Period.
This section describes the history of the idea of feudalism, how the concept originated among scholars and thinkers, how it changed over time, and modern debates about its use.
Enlightenment authors generally mocked and ridiculed anything from the “Dark Ages” including feudalism, projecting its negative characteristics on the current French monarchy as a means of political gain. When the French Constituent Assembly abolished the “feudal regime” in August this is what was meant. Adam Smith used the term “feudal system” to describe a social and economic system defined by inherited frudalismo ranks, each of which possessed inherent social and economic privileges and obligations.
In such a system wealth derived from agriculture, which was arranged not according to market forces but on the basis of customary labour services owed by serfs to landowning nobles. Karl Marx also used the term in the 19th century in his analysis of society’s economic and political development, describing feudalism or more usually feudal society or the feudal mode of production as the order coming before capitalism.
For Marx, what defined feudalism was the power of the ruling class the aristocracy in their control of arable land, leading to a class society based upon the exploitation of efudalismo peasants who farm these lands, typically under serfdom and principally by means of labour, produce and money rents.
He also took it as a paradigm for understanding the power-relationships between capitalists and wage-labourers in his own time: Capitalism seems different because people are in theory free to work for themselves or for others as they choose. Eric Wolf have applied this label to include non-European societies, fsudalismo feudalism together with Imperial Chinese and pre-Columbian Incan societies as ‘tributary’.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, John Horace Round and Frederic William Maitlandboth historians of medieval Britain, arrived at different conclusions as to the character of English society before the Norman Conquest in Round argued that the Feudalismoo had brought feudalism with them to England, while Maitland contended that its fundamentals were already in place in Britain before The debate continues today, but a consensus viewpoint is that England before the Conquest had commendation which embodied some of the personal elements in feudalism while William the Conqueror introduced a modified and stricter northern French feudalism to England incorporating oaths of loyalty to the king by all who held by feudal tenure, even the vassals of his principal vassals Holding by feudal tenure meant that vassals must provide the quota of knights required by the king or a money payment in substitution.
In the 20th century, two outstanding historians offered still more widely differing perspectives.
El Feudalismo: F.L. Ganshof: : Books
The French historian Marc Blocharguably the most influential 20th-century medieval historian. It is feudalisno radical notion that peasants were part of the feudal relationship that sets Bloch apart from his peers: According to Bloch, other elements of society can be seen in feudal terms; all the aspects of life were centered on “lordship”, and so we can speak usefully of a feudal church structure, a feudal courtly and anti-courtly literature, and a feudal economy.
His classic definition of feudalism is widely accepted today among medieval scholars,  though questioned both by those who view the concept in wider feusalismo and by those who find insufficient uniformity in noble exchanges to support such a model.
Although he was never formally a student in the circle of feudaliso around Marc Bloch and Lucien Febvre that came to be known as the Annales SchoolGeorges Duby was an exponent of the Annaliste tradition.
He argued that in early 11th century, governing institutions—particularly comital courts established under the Carolingian monarchy—that had represented public justice and order in Burgundy during the 9th and 10th centuries receded and gave way to a new feudal order wherein independent aristocratic knights wielded power over peasant communities through gansjof tactics and threats of violence.
Brown  rejected the label feudalism as an anachronism that imparts a false sense of uniformity to the concept.
Having noted the current use of many, often contradictory, definitions of feudalismshe argued that the word is only a construct with no basis in medieval reality, an invention of modern historians read back “tyrannically” into the historical record.
Aniceto Masferrer – Universidad de Valencia
Supporters of Brown have suggested that the term should be expunged from history textbooks and lectures on medieval history entirely. Although some contemporaries questioned Reynolds’s methodology, other historians have supported it and her argument. The term feudal has also been applied to non-Western societies in which institutions and attitudes similar to those of medieval Europe are perceived to have prevailed See Examples of feudalism. Japan has been extensively studied in this hanshof.
Richard Abels notes that “Western Civilization and World Civilization textbooks now shy away from the term ‘feudalism’. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the classic, or medieval, Western European form of feudalism.
For feudalism as practiced in other societies, as well ganshoff that of the Europeans, see Examples of feudalism. Abolition of feudalism in France. Shumaker, George Foster Longsdorf, pg. The Foundations of Western Civilization. Stenton1st ed.: New York and London, ; 2nd ed: Feudalism and Historians of Medieval Europe”.