Dostojewski i “Przeklęte problemy”: Od “Biednych ludzi” do “Zbrodni i kary” by Ryszard Przybylski (pp. ). Review by: Joachim T. Baer. DOI: /. Dostojewski, F.M. (). Zbrodnia i kara. Bracia Karamazow – nieczysta hosanna Dostojewskiego. „Slavia Dostojewski i „przeklęte problemy”. Warszawa. He has published such works as Dostojewski i przeklęte problemy / Dostoevsky and Cersed Problems, Klasycyzm, czyli prawdziwy koniec.
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But he who is dominated by self-love is overpowered by the dostojjewski passions, even against his will. Self-love dotojewski the passion of attachment to the body.
Ivan Petrovic, the main protagonist of the novel is simultaneously its narrator and focaliser, which means that we view everything through his eyes and read his text. However, contrary to the omniscient narrator, he does not have any insight into the inner workings of the other characters, as he can only access outward behaviour — the spoken word and non verbal communication.
If verbal and non verbal messages clash, or contradict each other, the narrator believes the non verbal communication. He pays the most attention to problemg tone of his interlocutor. Alongside descriptions, the protagonist demonstrates intonation with the help of italics.
It dostojwwski in different modes of speech — in first person narration of the main protagonist, in direct prob,emy of the characters, and in relative clauses. In each of these italics are used slightly differently. In the speech of the narrator, i. When the narrator recounts the words of other characters direct speechitalics are used to mark his interpretation of the paralinguistic speech traits of the character in question.
Italics are also used to mark foreign words. In the restaurant, where Valkovsky explains his life philosophy to Ivan Petrovic, he intones words that are part of what to him is an alien, despised view of life. One can live such a gay and charming life without ideals.
If I were a little more virtuous I could not perhaps get on without it, like that fool philosopher no doubt a German. However, some quotes tend to contain various italicised words or phrases often belonging to different characters:.
This is non verbal communication not between the two protagonists, but between the narrator and reader. That the narrator pays attention to the tone of voice of his interlocutor means that he is aware of his semantic role. His descriptions alert us to the psychological states of the characters and the complex relations between them. The dominant sensory system of the novel is paralinguistics, followed closely by facial and eye expressions.
These paralinguistic and kinesic elements help create the psychological and spiritual realism of the novel. The chronemics of the novel are most subtly embodied in the plot-theme line of the novel a variation on the Parable of the Prodigal Son peaking during the Holy Week. This time placement of events is of crucial significance to the ideas holding the novel together.
The concept of tone is semantically complex. The functions of voice and tone are also different. Voice, however, mainly indicates emotion, which is also what makes it difficult to control consciously. While we cannot change our voice, we have infinite possibilities, aside from the limits posed by social norms or etiquette, in choosing our tone.
We will only examine the eight which are connected to culture and language.
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The pitch of the voice while speaking. She spoke to her daughter in a monotonous voice. A way of expressing emotions or atittude to the interlocutor or the subject of the conversation. His condescending tone was annoying. Language style in speech or writing.
I tried to maintain a friendly tone. In this novel we seem to mainly be dealing with tone in its first two linguistic meanings. Italics dostojfwski we mention above porblemy the 6th or 7th subtype of this, which both express the attitude of the speaker to the interlocutor or the theme of the dialogue. If the content of a sentence and its tone clash, tone takes precedence. In the second letter he announced that he was coming to us in a few days to hasten his marriage to Natasha, that this was settled and that nothing could prevent it.
And yet it was clear from the whole tone of the letter that he was in despair, that outside influences were weighing heavily upon him, and that he did not believe what he said. And the tone was what mattered most in the letter, let me tell you. It was as though he would sooner expect an earthquake of Lisbon than that he should fail to get his own way; that was the tone of it.
This next example is similar in that the content is fairly neutral but the tone is not. And on Wednesday, too, as you were going away you made some allusions to our present position, and spoke of her, not slightingly, quite the contrary, but yet not as I would like to hear you speak, somehow too lightly, without affection, without the respect for her….
This paragraph confirms what we established at the beginning — that in first person narration non verbal communication is crucial in directing the prezklete within the reality of the story. In the following paragraph — it is a description of a speech by Valkovsky — we are dealing with the wider meaning of the notion of tone.
He made his speech coldly, with some display of eloquence, and in parts with in certain nonchalance. The tone of the dostojewdki speech was incongruous indeed with the impulse that had brought him to us at an hour so inappropriate vostojewski a first visit, especially under such circumstances. Initially we have an example of the 7th subtype of tone, while the closing remarks resemble more the 4th subtype.
The 4th subtype becomes particularly apparent in a debate between Dostojewskii and the narrator in a restaurant the latter joins Valkovsky on invitation.
Valkovsky keeps changing his tone: These changes reflect his thoughts and intentions, as well as his emotions, and are underpinned by his general spiritual state. There was a crazy official in Paris, who was afterwards put into a madhouse when it was realized that he was mad. Well, when he went out of his mind this is what he thought of to amuse himself. He undressed at home, altogether, like Adam, only keeping on his shoes and socks, put on an ample cloak that came down to his heels, wrapped himself round in it, and with a grave and majestic air went out into the street.
That used to last for a minute, then he would wrap himself up again, and in silence, without moving a muscle of his face, he would stalk by the petrified spectator, as grave and majestic as the ghost in Hamlet. When tone marks interpersonal relations or the attitude to the interlocutor or the topic of the conversation 7th subtype of tonewe are dealing with psychological realism, or less frequently with spiritual realism — depending on the subject of the conversation.
When the concept of tone is broader 4th subtype then it takes on an ethical or moral message. Schillerism is according to Valkovsky a banal display of naive emotion, philanthropy, idealism, romanticism, sentimentality, contemplative mysticism, a tendency towards virtuosity and beauty.
Valkovsky hates Schillerism because he believes it is fake, and that hiding behind all the philanthropy and longing for ideals is just pure self-centeredness. All is for me, the whole world is created for me. The spiritual state of the character is clear from his facial expressions:. He took us all in a rapid attentive glance. It was impossible to guess from this glance whether he had come as a friend or as an enemy.
I had seen him before. The regular oval of his rather swarthy face, his superb teeth, his small, rather thin, beautifully chiselled lips, his rather long straight nose, his high forehead, on which no wrinkle could be discerned, his rather large grey eyes, made him handsome, and yet his face did not make a pleasant impression.
The face repelled because its expression was not spontaneous, but always, as it were, artificial, deliberate, borrowed, and a blind conviction grew upon one that one would never read his real expression. Looking more carefully one began to suspect behind the invariable mask something spiteful, cunning, and intensely egoistic. They were not completely under the control of his will, like his other features.
The description of his face is reminiscent of the silhouettes of saints in Orthodox icons. The icon represents a transformed man, and sainthood exerts a positive, enlightening influence on its surroundings.
The representation of the saint in an icon their image, the lack of gestures demonstrates their spiritual sobriety and harmony. But the prince cannot hide his internal, spiritual disharmony: His eyes are cruel, mis-trusting and searching.
Orthodox theology is based on St. It is something which exists, alongside the soul and mind or spirit, to be transformed and deified. The body is the vehicle with which man endeavours to return to the image of God. What happens on the level of the body, always has consequences for the soul and spirit and vice versa.
The mad official from Paris, with whom Valkovsky is compared, uses his body to completely different end — to get pleasure. Another meaningful description of facial features is that of Katerina, one of the characters embodying Schillerism:. I looked at her with impatient attention. She was a short, soft little blonde dressed in a white frock, with a mild and serene expression of face, with eyes of perfect blue, as Alyosha had said, she had the beauty of youth, that was all.
I had expected to meet the perfection of beauty, but it was not a case of beauty. And, strange to say, her face, in which I had seen nothing particularly handsome at first sight, seemed that evening to grow finer and more attractive every minute.
The narrator distinguishes between two kinds of beauty; one is external beauty, resembling that of a saint but which turns out to be fake and lacking any spiritual foundation Valkovsky. Dostoyevsky, The Insulted and Injuredp. Maksim Spoznavalec, Izbrani spisi. Alexeyev of 7th June On the other hand there is the concept of the ambivelence of beauty, meaning that beauty without an ethical or spiritual foundation becomes a value with no use or a negative influence.
Designed by Matikat Powered by WordPress. The Insulted and Injured Posted on Jun 4, However, some quotes tend to contain various italicised words or phrases often belonging to different characters: Tone The concept of tone is semantically complex. His voice has changed. His tone has changed. A particular sound, colour, shade, nuance as the smallest unit of aesthetic space. Some tones in this painting were too sharp.
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A characteristic of an artwork as a whole, which influences the way in which it is emotionally perceived. The sky and the sea are shrouded in dark tones. The writing style of the author or the style of the artwork.