Cattell, R. B. (). Theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence: A critical experiment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 54(1), /. Crystallized Intelligence: Examples & Definition . These two tasks illustrate two different types of intelligence proposed by Raymond Cattell known as ‘fluid Psychology has offered many theories about intelligence over the. Charles Spearman’s noted student Raymond Cattell expanded on Spearman’s theory of a unified g and explored the difference between two independent but.

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By contrast, the other is invested in particular areas of crystallized skills which can be upset individually without affecting the others.

Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

Fluid intelligence is the ability to tackle new problems by recognizing patterns and using logic and reasoning to find a solution independent of any experience or knowledge. This is evidenced by the fact that brain injuries affect Gf more than Gc.

Familiarity and memory allow us to solve problems similar to the ones we have already encountered. As you can imagine, a high Gf allows intellihence person to develop a high Gc — their inbuilt intelligence lets them effectively gather and retain knowledge. Gc is merely the factor that cements itself in knowledge, while Gf is the more abstract factor drawn on to solve novel problems. A child can be understood to be born with nothing but Gf and later develop their Gc according to their education and life experience.


While Gc increases steadily with age, there does come a point where the rate of forgetting is faster than the rate of acquiring new knowledge! The Sentinelese people who crywtallized on North Sentinel Island off the coast of India are unique in that they have had virtually no contact with the outside civilized world, and they retain a hunter-gatherer lifestyle in an isolated jungle.

If a Sentinelese child were given an IQ test, there cartell no question that she would obtain a very low score, even if it were translated into her native tongue. But the Sentinelese child will have vastly different crystallized intelligence compared to the modern, westernized child such a test was designed for.

In fact, the notion of taking an IQ test at all intelliegnce be a novel experience and not something she could tackle using her education or past experience. She would have to rely exclusively on her fluid intelligence.

This raises important questions about crystallzied and validity in IQ assessment. The difficulty of testing Gf independently and outside of any accrued cultural or educational knowledge is challenging.

The test requires the child to complete a series of pictures by choosing from a given selection. They have to uncover the hidden rules of increasingly complex questions, but without relying on any crystallized skills itnelligence might have developed prior. Such tests are not only effective ways of measuring Gf, but they are also more culture-neutral.

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In other words, they would likely give a more accurate score for our hypothetical Sentinelese child! Crystallized intelligence is easily and frequently measured in academic exams.

If Gf is independent of crystallized knowledge, it can be directed to any activity and solve any problem.

Fluid and crystallized intelligence – Wikipedia

Therefore, the choice of where to invest this ability may come down to idiosyncratic features. Check out our quiz-page with cattelo about:. Lyndsay T Wilson Dec 6, Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence. Retrieved Dec 26, from Explorable. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4.

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Hebb and Cattell: The Genesis of the Theory of Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

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