One of the most com- monly used specifications for filament- wound FRP tanks is ASTM D This standard was first published in and. For Filament Wound Fabrications: ASTM D Specification for Filament Wound Glass. Fiber Reinforced Thermoset Resin Chemical Resistant Tanks. ASTM D, Specification for Woven Roving Glass Fabric for Polyester-Glass Laminates ASTM D, Standard Specification for Filament-Wound.
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A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.
Included are requirements for materials, d32299, design, construction, dimensions, tolerances, workmanship, and appearance. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Current edition approved March 10, Originally published as D — Last previous edition D — 95ae1. Absence of a designation of type required shall imply that Type I is adequate. NOTE 3—The external corrosive environment due to spillage or corrosive vapors should be considered when specifying Grade 2 tanks see 7. NOTE 6—Because the addition of? The strands should be treated with a sizing that is chemically compatible with the resin system used.
NOTE 7—The selection of the particular chopped-strand mat is dependent upon the performance characteristics required of the? Materials and Manufacture 5.
Where service conditions have not been evaluated, a suitable resin also may be selected by agreement between fabricator and purchaser. NOTE 4—The addition of a thixotropic agent may reduce the resistance of many resin systems to certain corrosive chemical environments. It is the responsibility of the fabricator, using a thixotropic agent in the resin 3d299 for 7. In environments that attack glass, the use of an organic-?
Design Requirements Design Requirements 6. NOTE 8—The use of an accepted analytical technique, such as laminated plate theory LPTzstm design and analysis of composite vessels may predict stresses, strains, and strength on a ply-by-ply basis, given some basic lamina properties. NOTE 9—Tanks for installation outdoors shall be designed for the effect of wind loading and other environmental factors in accordance with sound design practice, including tank buckling analysis.
NOTE 10—Tanks with signi?
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NOTE 5—The addition of pigment, dyes, or colorants may interfere with visual inspection of laminate quality. NOTE 11—Tanks with unsupported bottoms require special design consideration.
The thickness of the inner surface and interior layer 7. The reinforcement thickness shall be equal to the thickness of the head as calculated above. The thickness of a joint overlay near the knucle radius tangent line of a dished head contributes to the knucle reinforcement. A line of support is the following: Contact-molded laminates shall satisfy the minimum property requirements listed in Speci? NOTE 12—Support of auxiliary equipment, snow load, or operation personnel may require additional reinforcement or the use of stiffener ribs, sandwich construction, or other stiffening systems.
Type II tanks may also require additional reinforcement. The minimum thickness of the radiused section shall be equal to the combined thickness of the shell wall and the bottom.
The Design Tanks Difference: Exceeding The Standards | Design Tanks
The reinforcement of the knuckle-radius area shall taper so that it is tangent to the? Property 18 Thickness, in. The reinforcement shall then taper into the side wall over an additional length of 4 in. Methods of manufacture that incorporate stiffening bands as a means of knuckle stabilization, are permissible alternatives by agreement between purchaser and fabricator, provided the fabricator can document the validity of the design. The bottom laminate surface shall be a hand-work? NOTE 13—This requirement is not intended to exclude the use of drain nozzles which are commonly used at the bottom of the side shell.
They do, however, require foundation cut-outs of the appropriate dimensions for the nozzle type and size. For Elliptical Bottom Head: PD t 5 2S 8 shell, or to join the bottom or top head to the shell, the thickness of the structural joint overlay shall be determined by the following equation, but shall not be less than 3?
Surfaces shall be clean and dry before lay-up. The entire roughened area shall be coated with paraffinated resin after the joint lay-up is made. When contact-molded laminate joints are used to join hoop segments of the straight where: This internal overlay shall not be considered a structural element in determining joint thickness.
The corrosion-resistant barrier of the nozzle shall be at least equivalent to the inner surface and interior layer 7. D Flange thickness shall be at least equal to local vessel thickness. B Axial joint overlay widths shall be twice the width shown in table.
Dor centrifugally cast pipe, in accordance with Speci? The corrosion-resistant barrier of the contact-molded portions of such nozzles shall be equivalent to the inner surface and interior layer 7. Plate gussets, where needed, shall be evenly spaced around the nozzle and are to be added after complete assembly by the nozzle on the shell.
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Larger nozzles, subject to superimposed mechanical forces, require special consideration. NOTE 15—Tanks over 6 ft 1. NOTE 16—Special vent sizing consideration should be given to the numerous operating situations astn could otherwise cause a positive or a negative pressure in a closed tank.
Minimum vent size shall be sufficient to handle the? Special design consideration must be given to buckling of tank wall and heads, the hold-down lug system, and top and bottom knuckle requirements.
Fluid level in the tank is an important consideration in the analysis. The design number and attachment of such lugs is the responsibility of the fabricator, based on the wind, seismic, and other loads speci? Nozzle may be penetrating type or?
Laminate Construction Requirements 7. NOTE 2—Gaskets shall be 1?
As an alternative, a minimum of two passes of chopped roving of minimum length 0. Each ply of mat or pass of chopped roving shall be well-rolled prior to the application of additional reinforcement. The combined thickness of the inner surface and interior layer shall not be less than 0. The thickness of the? If additional longitudinal strength is required, the use of other reinforcements, such as woven fabric, nonwoven unidirectional or bidirectional fabric, chopped-strand mat, or chopped strands, may be interspersed in the winding to provide additional strength.
Glass content of this? Only those constructions evaluated for design properties in The use of woven roving is optional. The designations of these speci? Each successive ply or pass of reinforcement shall be well-rolled prior to the application of additional reinforcement. Where woven roving is used, chopped-strand glass reinforcement shall be used as alternating and? All woven roving, nonwoven fabric, and surfacing mat shall be overlapped.
Laps in subsequent layers shall be staggered at least 2. Suitable methods include use of ultraviolet absorbers, incorporation of pigment of sufficient opacity in the outer surface resin-rich layer, or use of resins inherently resistant to ultraviolet degradation.
Since pigmentation makes inspection difficult, it shall be added after inspection or otherwise by agreement between the purchaser and fabricator. Other techniques such as sprayed, wrapped, or overlaid? Successive layers shall uniformly increase in width in that speci?
The entire roughened area shall be coated with paraffinated resin after joint overlay is made. This overlay shall be the equivalent of 7. Where shape, thickness, or other restrictions preclude covering the edges with the preceding laminate, such cut edges and any machined? In either case, the resin used shall be that used in the equipment laminate and? In addition, this clearance shall not be less than the shear distance required for proper installation of the nozzle see 7.
Acceptable patterns of reinforcement placement are shown in Fig. For nozzles less than 6 in. This thickness, tr, may be applied to the outer or inner surfaces, or be divided between them as shown in Fig. NOTE 18—When tr is calculated to be 1? The f3299 of these requirements is to avoid orienting joints in reinforcing layers perpendicular to the maximum load-bearing direction circumferential.
Installation laminate placements are shown in Fig. The all-interior installation laminate placement is 3d299 only when the nozzle being installed has an integral conical gusset preventing application of an exterior laminate.
When the inside laminate consists only of a corrosion barrier, the length of the laminate, hr shall be a minimum of 3 in.
Typical plate type and conical type gussets are shown in Fig. Overall thickness, mm h aatm lengthmm A 14? The interior overlay shall present the same corrosion resistance to the? Dimensions and Tolerances 8. The shell taper shall not exceed 1? Tolerances on installation are shown in Fig. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance 8.