Identification. Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk.) Less. [family ASTERACEAE ] ( stored under name); Verified by Not on Sheet, Buphthalmum odorum Schousb. Familia: Asteraceae Subfamilia: Asteroideae Tribus: Inuleae Subtribus: Inulinae Genus: Asteriscus Species: Asteriscus graveolens. In the present study the phytochemical composition and biological activities of the aerial part extracts of Asteriscus graveolens against pathogenic bacteria and.
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Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissues, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
WO// ASTERISCUS GRAVEOLENS EXTRACTS AND USE THEREOF
Epithelial tissues line surfaces and cavities throughout the body. Epithelium forms part of both the outside surface skin and the inside cavities and lumen of mammalian bodies. Functions of epithelial cells include protection, detection of sensation, selective absorption, secretion and transcellular transport.
The skin comprises stratified squamous, keratinized epithelial cells and viable keratinocytes among other cell types. Tissues lining the inside of the mouth, the esophagus and part of grzveolens rectum are composed of non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Other surfaces that separate body cavities from the outside environment are padded by simple squamous, columnar, or pseudo-stratified epithelial cells.
Other epithelial cells line the inside of the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, the reproductive ssteriscus urinary tracts, and make up the exocrine and endocrine glands. The outer surface of the cornea is covered with fast-growing, easily regenerated epithelial cells. In these organs and tissues, the epithelium serves as part of the protective barrier against harmful physical forces, chemicals, pollutants, pathogens and other undesired agents. Asteriscuss of these exogenous aggravations must challenge the epithelium before entering into the body.
Pollution born toxins have detrimental effect on the health of cells and tissues and on organs comprising same. Pollution may be caused by a vast number of a variety of factors, including, for example, indoor pollution resulting from cigarette smoke, cleaning products and dust, and outdoor pollution including graveoldns smoke, industrial waste and carbon monoxide. Toxic buildup is known to impair an organ’s normal physiologic functions. The constant, sometimes daily exposure grraveolens environmental toxins leads to accumulated damage in the cells of all exposed organs.
Common cellular mechanism by which most pollutants exert their adverse effects include their ability to act asteriacus as pro-oxidants of lipids and proteins, form DNA adducts, DNA breakage or mutations or to act as free radicals generators, promoting oxidative stress and the induction of asteriscue responses. Free radicals reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are harmful to cellular lipids, proteins, and nuclear- or mitochondrial-DNA, inhibiting their normal function.
In addition, they can interfere with signaling pathways within cells. In eukaryotic aerobic organisms including humans, free radicals are continuously generated during normal metabolism and in response to exogenous environmental exposures e.
A state of oxidative stress occurs when the organism defense graveoolens are overwhelmed leading to an increase in the free radical concentration. This oxidative stress has been shown to be linked graveolenz poor appearance and premature aging of the skin.
Oxidative stress has also been implicated in a wide variety of degenerative diseases such as atherosclerosis, heart attacks, stroke, chronic inflammatory diseases rheumatoid arthritiscataract, central nervous asterlscus disorders Parkinson and Alzheimer’s diseasesage related disorders and cancer. Pollutants mainly reach mammalian tissues via dermal contact, astteriscus and ingestion of contaminated products. Air and soil pollution contributes, to awteriscus great extent, to the contamination of food and water, such that ingestion is also a route of pollutant intake.
Pollutants deposited in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts may be absorbed by the epithelial cells such that toxic substances appear in the general circulation and accumulate in different tissues.
Graveolend link between exposure to certain substances and epithelium damage is universally accepted. For example, formaldehyde is now recognized worldwide as both a carcinogen and asterischs skin sensitizer. Another example is the pollutant chemicals found in tobacco smoke. Cigarette smoke contains over 4, chemical compounds of which about 60 have been designated as carcinogenic.
People who smoke on a regular basis are prone to a damage of tissue comprising epithelial cells, particularly of the lung, oral cavity and asteriscs. Aging processes of smoker’s skin are also accelerated.
All types of pollution, at high concentration, can affect mammalian airways and gastrointestinal tract. Nevertheless, similar effects are also observed with long-term exposure to lower pollutant concentrations. Symptoms such as nose and throat irritation, followed by bronchoconstriction and dyspnoea, especially in asthmatic individuals, are usually experienced after exposure to increased levels of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and certain heavy metals such as arsenic, nickel or vanadium.
Air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides increase the susceptibility to respiratory infections. Chronic exposure to ozone graevolens certain heavy metals reduces lung function, while the later are also responsible for asthma, emphysema, and even lung cancer.
Emphysema-like lesions have also been observed in mice exposed to nitrogen dioxide. The epithelium possesses a limited active toxin defense including physical removal of exogenous toxins.
Exemplary routes include the natural expulsion of contaminated cells as part of skin’s organic turn-over and dissolving of toxins from interstitial spaces graveo,ens transferring these back onto the surface via sweat. However, the natural defense mechanisms against toxins do not provide full protection. Toxins that have not been physically removed may be metabolized within the epithelium.
In recent years it has been demonstrated that human epithelium cells express various Cytochrome P CYP enzymes, including such that are responsible asteriscis for metabolism of exogenous toxins within various types of epithelial cells. The resulting metabolites may potentially also damage the epithelium and body.
Defense against skin toxins depends on several factors, including behavioral routines i. Traditional medicine has long appreciated the negative effect of toxin deposit on health and wellbeing and practices detoxification of the body as standard treatment for many diseases and disorders. Similar practices, with some variations, are very commonly self-implemented by the public.
These detoxification processes focus on reducing the exposure to toxins and increasing removal of toxins from the body. Skin is the largest and the most exposed organ of the body comprising epithelial tissues. Skin has numerous functions, the primary function being a protective barrier against harmful physical forces, chemicals, pollutants, pathogens and other undesired agents.
The skin consists of three main layers: The epidermis is further subdivided into several layers: The genus Asteriscus Tribe Inuleae, family Asteraceae consists of eight species and five sub-species, the morphology, phylogeny, and astediscus of which have been studied.
This species, an endemic herbaceous medicinal aromatic plant, extends from North Africa to the desert regions of Asia. It has been used in Sahara folk medicine as a stomachic, for treating fever, gastrointestinal tract complaints, headache and bronchitis, and as an anti-inflammatory agent.
The chemical composition of A. Cristofari G et al. Chemistry and Biodiversity 9: Traditional Chinese medicine preparations comprising a mixture of dried plant material including plants of the Asteraceae family, particularly of A.
Terthiophenes grveolens polyynes from Asteraceae species have been suggested as components in plant-derived compositions asteriscsu treating herpes and cold sores Graveolebs PCT Application Publication No. There is an ongoing attempt to develop plant-based compositions for treating skin disorders and damages. Patent Application Publication No.
It is highly desirable and it would be advantageous to have improved compositions and methods effective in protecting tissues comprising epithelial cells in asteriscu and skin in particular from deleterious effects caused by environmental hazards, particularly by pollutants. The present invention provides extracts of Asteriscus graveolens plant and compositions comprising same useful in protecting mammalian tissues from pollution. The extracts and compositions of the invention are highly useful in preventing a damage caused to tissues comprising epithelial cells by exposure to various pollutants, particularly chemical substances including chemicals found in smoke e.
The present invention is based in part on the unexpected discovery that a fraction of Asteriscus graveolens extract, soluble in a polar solvent, is useful in protecting against toxic challenges met by astteriscus skin and other epithelial-cell comprising tissues that come in contact with exogenous pollutant, for example lung tissue. The extract fraction thereby improved the skin appearance and vitality and reduced premature skin aging.
The extracts of the present invention exhibit a significant protective effect on cell viability, increasing the cell survival following exposure to a smoke-tainted medium. Each possibility represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.
According to certain embodiments, the at least one pollutant originates from at least one of combustion gas, industrial pollutions and smoke. According to certain embodiments, the pollutant is smoke-associated pollutant.
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According to certain exemplary embodiments, the pollutant originates from tobacco smoke. According to some embodiments, the smoke is tobacco smoke. According to other embodiments, the subject is a tobacco smoker or is exposed to tobacco smoke secondary or passive smoker. According to certain embodiments, the subject is exposed to the at least one pollutant sporadically.
According to other embodiments, the subject is exposed to the at least one pollutant on a daily basis. According to some embodiments, protecting the tissue from the deleterious effect of the at least one pollutant results in at least one outcome selected from the group consisting of increased viability of the tissue cells, improved health of the tissue cells and reduced premature aging of the tissue cells.
Each possibility represents a separate embodiment of the invention. According to certain exemplary embodiments, the tissue cells are epithelial cells. According to certain embodiments, protecting the tissue comprises increasing the tolerance of said tissue cells to the at least one pollutant. According to certain exemplary embodiments, protecting the tissue comprises increasing the tolerance of the tissue epithelial cells to the at least one pollutant. Without wishing to be bound by any specific theory or mechanism of action, the extract of the present invention is effective in increasing the tolerance of the epithelial-cell comprising tissue to the pollutants by decreasing the epithelial cells response or sensitivity to said pollutants.
According to certain exemplary embodiments, the epithelial tissue forms part of the skin. According to these embodiments, the method comprises topically administering the polar solvent extract derived from A. According to certain embodiments, the skin hydration pre-determined threshold value is obtained from a skin area of the same subject not exposed to the at least one pollutant. According to other embodiments, the skin hydration pre-determined threshold value is obtained from a skin area of a subject not exposed to the at least one pollutant.
According to additional exemplary embodiments, the epithelial tissue forms part of at least one of the lung, trachea and nasal cavity. According to yet additional embodiments, the epithelial tissue forms part of at least one of pharynx and larynx.
The concentration of the A. According to other embodiments, the composition comprises from 0. According to certain embodiments, the extract, fraction thereof or a composition comprising same is administered at least once daily.
According to certain exemplary embodiments, the extract, fraction thereof or a composition comprising same is administered twice daily.
According to some embodiments, the extract, fraction thereof or a composition comprising same is administered for at least a week, for at least two weeks, for at least three week or for at least 4 weeks.
According to certain exemplary embodiments, the extract, fraction thereof or composition comprising same is administered during four weeks. According to some embodiments, the pollutant comes in contact with the tissue comprising epithelial cells in its isolated form.
According to other embodiments, the pollutant is present in a medium coming in contact with the subject tissue.
According to certain embodiments, the pollutant is present in a medium selected from the group consisting of ambient air, water and soil. According to some embodiments, the subject is human.
According to certain exemplary embodiments, the human subject is a smoker. According to certain embodiments, the compositions and methods of the asterriscus invention employs a fraction of the polar solvent extract.