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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Early in the desirability of improvement in the system of astronomical telegraphic communications was frequently discussed at the Saturday evening meetings of the Boston Sci- entific Society, as a result of which a code, to all intents the NUMBER CODE, was prepared by Messrs. Chandler and Ritchie asercioh In order that this code might have encjbierta fair experimental trial without interfering with the then existing qsercion of international communication of discoveries, arrangements were made with Lord Crawford for the receipt and publication of cable messages containing orbits com- puted in the Assrcion States and vice versa.

Later in the year, the general needs of astronomy having been con- sidered, an experimental PHRASE CODE was put into manuscript, which, after two years’ service, was revised and extended and put into print for general use.

Inupon the occasion of the formation of a European union of astronomers. Krueger expressed a wish that the originators of this CODE would act as the centre for the United States for announcements and for collection of news of astronomical discoveries, and shortly afterwards Prof.

Ritchie and Chandler, the department of international exchange of astronomical information. The co-operation of Harvard College Observatory having been secured in the interests encubirrta this department, it was formally transferred early in Many suggestions have encybierta received from Dr.

Gould and others who have had actual experience with the CODE, the most practicable of which have been incorporated in this edition. Some inconveniences in the use of the previous edition of the CODE, which WITC due almost entirely to the defective character of the diction- ary provisionally used, have been obviated by the numbering of the words and the removal of ambiguities.

The number words have been caivfully chosen from the dictionaries of several languages, this being necessary to secure the requisite number of suitable words. The words have been sa selected that the literal arrangement of anv word differs from encubiert of every other by at least two letters, and all words of more than ten letters have been excluded. Some convenient tallies have been appended, and to facilitate ready reference the three parts of the eencubierta have been printed upon paper of different colors.

It is manifest, then, that any integral number up to:!

In a similar manner each position of an ephemeris can be represented by two words, one for the Right Ascension and one for the North Polar Distance. Positions are always to be referred to the Apparent Equinox of the date. The full complement of words must always be sent. First date of ephenieris and light for that date. Second North Polar Distance. Four-day Third Right Ascension. Third North Polar Distance.

Fourth North Polar Distance. Dates of the observations from which the orbit is calculated. The time of perihelion passage is to be referred to ireenwich.

Mean Time dav beginning at Creenwich Mean Noon iii all eases, and is to be given by the number of the day in the year and a decimal to two places.

Msl word in section. No confusion can arise from the omission of the year, since an interval of more than four months between discovery and perihelion passage is a case, which it is safe to assume, will not occur.


This is to be expressed in degrees and minutes. I’ is represented by the ,’Mth word in section 9′. Referred to the Mean Kqiiinox of the beginning of the year in which the olt- xi iT’iliniix we’re made, on which the elements arc based. Same Kqninox as Word No. This is to be given without the distinction of retrograde motion ; that is.

Same Ki iiinox as Word No.

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This is to be given directly, and not by its log- arithm. It h word in section [Coi. This is inserted in order that the receiver may know that lie has received and translated the elements correctly, and will enable him.

It is determined by adding together the numbers expressing items 1. Care must In- taken in this addition to supply a xero as the. I 07 86 and is reprcveiitel by the 3 Hh word in section L’07 [FAiiri.

Tin- first date of the ephemeris and the light for Hint date. The two dibits on the left, or one of them, if the date is less than 1 1. There can lie no error fncubierta the month itself, since the ephemeris will always begin within encubierga few days following the date of the despatch. Kphemeri- iles are referred, in all cases, to ireenwich Mean Midnight day beginning at ireenwich Mean Asfrcion.

The three dibits on the right will serve to give the estimated light of the comet on the first date of the epliemeris. This light is to lie given in terms of brightness at discovery taken as unity, and is to lie expressed liy a unit and two decimal places. A message, dated May 2′. Again, a message, dated January encuubierta It will be seen that the date is. Should circumstances render doubtful the date of discovery, and hence the value of unity in the light scale, the light at first date of ephemeris will Vie taken as unity, and the three right hand digits will in this case always be First Right Ascension of ephemeris.

This is to be expressed in arc, to the nearest minute.

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First North Polar Distance. This is also to be given to the nearest minute of arc. Last date of ephemeris and light for that envubierta. This is to be cxpre.

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This date, which is always 12 days later than the first date of the ephemeris. Date of first observation, and interval in davs between the first and second, and he ud and third observations. In the rare cases, when’ the interval between two observations exceeds nine days, it will be necessary, merely, to indicate that it is emcubierta lar-e interval, which may be done by the us,’ of a u as the interval ‘figure, showing it to be ten.

The means of correcting errors which may have been introduced into a seventeen-word despatch, in course of transmission, are the following ;: The elements are completely checked by the control-word ; aud in order to render them unintelligible, at least two words of the six which represent them must be wrongly transmitted.

See page 15 for an example. The continuity of the ephemeris would be broken by error among the words representing it, and it would be as, extremely exceptional case in which the erroneous word or words could not be determined and corrected.

Both elements and ephemeris being transmitted, either will serve to reproduce the other, should it be rendered unintelligible, while the possibility of a sufficient number of mistakes to ruin both elements and ephemeris is. The dates of the ephemeris check each other, and the word No. The mutilation of this word would be merely an inconvenience, and would in no wise injure the elements or ephemeris for practical use. A mistake in the order of the words comprising a despatch is extremely improbable, since there is no confusing similarity either in transmitting or transcribing, as is the case asercioon numerals or their names.


Such an error probably could not be detected in the elements, but if in the ephemeris it could be seen and corrected. The omission of a word is a species of error to asercuon against which telegraph companies take special precautions. In all cases, the number of words in the despatcli is attached to the message by the operator, and it is the duty of the receiving telegrapher to see that the proper number of words has been received.

But even if these precautions should fail, the number encubiefta words in the despatch will indicate the fact, the full complement being sent in all cases.

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The omission can then be located, since the continuity of the ephemeris, the similarity of its dates aud the control-word of the elements will afford abundant means for so doing. Error or encubiert has been considered, in all cases which have been quoted, to be of such nature as to afford no clue to the original word, which is by no means probable.

Even under the widest range of possible error, it will be seen that it is practically impossible for the message to be rendered useless, and very improbable that it will be even injured in transit. The following is the scheme of a six-word position message, which is well adapted to send cither an accurate or an approximate position: Mouth of the date of observation.

Time expressed in encubiertz of month, and three places of decimals. Encubierga and minutes of Right Ascension.

Degrees and minutes of North Polar Distance. Data, which, added to words Nos.

This form of message is for general and unpre- concerted use. In order that such a message may be known to. Hence, when the name of a month occurs in a message, it is to be assumed that it and the five words following it contain a position. A message of this form may be appended to a message in Phrase Code or in the vernacular, or it may lie one of a series of positions, each of which is indicated by its distinctive word, aeercion name of a month.

Such a series could be used following the seventeen-word despatch, to indicate the accurate positions from which the elements were derived.

The’ time is to be converted into Greenwich. Mean Time day beginning at Greenwich. Mean Noonand is to be expressed in day of the month and four decimal places.

Of this number, the day of the month and three decimal places will be expressed by word No. Thus, if the date of a position is May The degrees and minutes of the Right Ascension. The Right Ascension is to be converted into arc. Of this, word No. The seconds 30″ will be found in word No. The Declination is to be converted into North Polar Distance, expressed in degrees, minutes and seconds. Of this, the degrees and minutes form word No. The seconds 32″ will be found aserion word No.

The seconds of arc of Right Ascension are to be converted into seconds and tenths of seconds of encubierat, and will occupy the two left hand places of word No.

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