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All rights reserved, including translation rights. Some time ago, several hundred companies were asked pneumatkca of their tasks they considered the most important. The result – the top priority was efficient production. But what exactly does this mean? Efficient production means in practice low machine costs, high and predictable quality and high cost-effectiveness, speed of reaction and equipment availability. This is achieved above all through mechanisation and automation, or in other words through the use of technical devices and processes that partially or completely replace the functions ;arker human beings.

Industrial pneumatics has come to play a major role within this process, and the range of applications of industrial pneumatics is constantly expanding. The reason for this is that pneumatics can offer a virtually seamless range of proven optimised components, available in closely-spaced sizes and specifications to allow the rapid construction of devices on a modular principle.

Furthermore, appstila that users need, up to and including computer-supported planning aids, are available from a single source. It is naturally also interesting to consider the uses to which pneumatic components are put and the problem solutions in which they play a leading role. To describe these in full would scarcely be possible, not even in a series of books containing thousands of case studies.

The 9 examples in this book, however, demonstrate what pneumatics can do by showing solutions in simplified form in a way that we hope will fire the imagination and encourage new ideas. This book is accordingly aimed at practical technical users, those responsible for rationalisation and also those who are taking their first steps in the world of pneumatics.

The book is not a collection of patent recipes, since every problem has its own environment, often a highly specific one, into which the solution must fit.

If this collection succeeds as an entry-level guide to rationalisation with compressed air and vacuum, then it will have fulfilled its purpose and will have shown that it is not just hot air compressed or otherwise!

Collections of examples have the advantage that the possible uses of components can be demonstrated in a clear way, together with constructive suggestions. This concept is far from new. As early asH. Most of these are kinematically oriented and explained through schematic diagrams. It was in Europe, too, that the process of the comprehensive standardisation of pneumatic components began.

The purpose of examples is above all to stimulate the imagination of engineers and provide suggestions of ways to find high-quality solutions to their own problems. Examples cannot, however, provide patent recipes for solutions. The reason for this is that certain parameters, which can easily be overlooked, can often have a decisive influence on solution concepts.

Every solution must therefore be examined critically and tailored to the given real-life situation. In short — suggestions for solutions are not a guarantee of success but merely aids to thinking. Examples are shown in simplified form to allow the core of the solution to be seen as quickly as possible.


Many illustrations in this collection use the functional symbols of handling technology. This is intended to help the reader think in functions and to explain the solutions shown. For every function symbolthere are a number of function providers. It is not always easy to find the right function provider automation component. What is the best way to proceed? Step 1 Consider which functions are required in sequence and in interdependency. What are the requirements, and what secondary conditions will influence the solution?

A symbolic handling plan can be of assistance here. Step 2 Numerous actions need to be carried out, such as sliding, turning, holding, pressing, clamping and positioning. What drive components should one use for these? The most important factors are size, design, forces and speeds.

Step 3 How will the selected drives be controlled? It is possible to use directional-control, flow-control, shut-off and pressure regulator valves, which can be triggered or actuated by manual, mechanical, electrical or pneumatic means. Factors to consider are flow rates and the fitting of control components, for example using in-line or panel mounting. Step 4 How will I create the necessary connections between the cylinders and valves?


This will involve fittings, tubing, piping, silencers and energy chains and require the specification of nominal sizes and threads.

Step 5 How can I arrive at the “right” kind of air? This involves consideration of the components used in air generation and preparation, from service units, filters, dryers, lubricators and pressure regulators through to shut-off valves and other components used to route compressed air. Step 6 How can I arrange motion sequences into an overall control concept? It is also necessary to consider with a cool head the degree to which an operation is to be automated.

If, however, attempts are made to automate the remaining ten or twenty percent, this may once again make the entire automation ppneumatica non-cost effective. This holds fundamentally true even today.

It is a question of the right degree of automation. Too much automation can soon prove costly!

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The degree of automationis the quotient of the sum of the weighted automated functions and the sum of the weighted overall functions. Weighting factors make allowance for the period for which functions are used and their importance within the process.

The degree of automation can be used, for example, as an index for the comparison of different project concepts. Flexibilityis the ability of production systems to be adaptable in all sub-systems to changes in production requirements either through self-adaptation or at least through external adaptation manual intervention. High degrees of automation and flexibility are opposite extremes.

Our aim must therefore be automation with an affordable degree of flexibility. This is easy to say and often enough difficult to do. What is the reason for these difficulties?

We live in an age in which production systems are undergoing a fundamental change. Products are becoming more complex, numbers of variants are rising, customers demand instant delivery and product life cycles are becoming shorter and shorter. This process can be seen as a trend in Fig. If we were to do justice to the requirements of only apostiila part of this process, then this would jeopardise the entire project solution.

As we already know from studies of naturally created systems, it is not as a result of the optimisation of any one individual function that a large scale system can survive, but by virtue of the fact that it is sufficient for as many functions as possible to fulfil these only just well enough.


The lesson from this is that we must not think in functions but in processes and must take a holistic approach to the development of solution concepts. Examples are provided by problem solutions that have been taken out of their complex context and simplified. If they are to be pneumztica for other purposes, they must be adapted in terms of details and selected components in such a way that they will operate correctly in a specific environment.

Festo offers a wealth of automation components for this purpose. Apostilq main groups of available components are as follows:. Cylinderswith operating ranges from 0. If we compare pneumatic drives with other types of drives, we can see that pneumatics is able to cover a very ;neumatica area of applications. apoetila

If high actuating forces patker required, hydraulics offers advantages, while electrical drives are a better choice for very slow motions. This can be seen in Fig. In many examples, function sequences of handling operations have been shown as symbols.

Their meaning is shown in Fig. We distinguish between basic symbols handling, checking and production symbols for elementary functions separating, combining, turning, sliding, holding, releasing, testing and supplementary functions such as random storage hoppers and conveying.

The defined symbols and function make it easier to describe sequences and also provide a means for the non-solution-specific representation of functions in problem descriptions.

Suction extractor arms have the task of removing as efficiently as possible, air laden with hazardous substances smoke gases, vapours, dust or paint spray from the point at which these substances are released. The example shows the brazing of bushes. During this time, the suction shield is lowered pneumatically to a point close to the emission point. The shield is lifted again before the workpiece assembly is moved on to allow freedom of movement.

Depending on the size and weight of the suction extractor device, it may be necessary to consider whether an additional linear guide is necessary or whether the lateral forces acting on the piston rod are still within the permissible range. On production lines, for example for furniture components, it is necessary to lift chipboard, plastic, plywood and hard pneunatica panels from stacks and place these on a conveyor belt.

02 – Exemplos de Aplicação Pneumática

This can be carried out effectively using vacuum suction cups, provided that the material in question is not excessively porous. In this example, a continuous conveyor is used to bring the stack to the transfer point, at which it is halted by a sensor signal. The number and size of suction cups used will be governed by the weight of the workpieces. The suction cups are spring-mounted to compensate for minor height differences up to 5 m.

Pneumatic single pilot valves or valve terminal CP Pneumatic linear drive DGPL Mounting accessories Suction cup VAS Sensor Vacuum efficiency valve ISV Pneumatica – aula1 pneumatica.

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